Ru Promoted MgO and Al-Modified MgO for Ethanol Upgrading
- 26 Downloads
Mg-containing oxides are widely studied as effective catalysts for ethanol upgrading due to their capacity to promote dehydrogenation and coupling reactions. In such systems, the dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde is thought to be the rate-determining step, so that the addition of dehydrogenation promoters onto the oxides could be a good way of optimizing the catalysts. Herein, we propose a systematic screening of different catalysts (MgO, Ru/MgO, MgxAlOy, and Ru/MgxAlOy) in order to understand the roles of Ru and of the oxides in the several parallel reactions that occur in the systems. We investigated the catalysts by spectroscopic, textural and bench-scale techniques to correlate microscopic results with macroscopic findings. The insertion of Al into the MgO framework improved activity and product distribution towards ethene. Ru increased ethanol conversion in the systems, but directed the product distribution towards methane.
KeywordsEthanol upgrading Magnesium oxide Ruthenium DRIFTS
The authors thank CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) for providing scholarships and supporting this work. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001. The authors thank INMETRO (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia) and INT (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia) respectively for the HRTEM and XPS analyses. RJD and JTP acknowledge support by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER14549.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Industry Statistics – Renewable Fuel Association (2018). https://ethanolrfa.org/resources/industry/statistics
- 2.Riittonen T, Eta V, Hyvärinen S, Jönsson LJ, Mikkola JP (2013) Engineering aspects of bioethanol synthesis. In: Murzin DY (ed) Advances in chemical engineering. Academic Press, Elsevier, pp 1–73Google Scholar
- 3.Bellussi G et al (2011) Ullmann’s encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 4.Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (2007). https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-110hr6enr/pdf/BILLS-110hr6enr.pdf
- 8.Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program - Ethanol Internal Combustion Engines (2010) https://tinyurl.com/yd98o2tc
- 14.Riittonen T (2014) Bio-Ethanol Valorization Towards C4 s Including 1-Butanol over Metal Modified Alumina and Zeolite Catalysts. Ph.D. Thesis. Åbo Akademi UniversityGoogle Scholar
- 23.Carlini C, Marchionna M, Noviello M, Galletti AMR, Sbrana G, Basile F, Vaccari A (2005) Guerbet condensation of methanol with n-propanol to isobutyl alcohol over heterogeneous bifunctional catalysts based on Mg–Al mixed oxides partially substituted by different metal components. J Mol Catal A 232:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Bond GC (1957) Platinum metals as hydrogenation catalysts. Platin Met Rev 1:87–93Google Scholar
- 32.Livingstone SE (1973) The chemistry of Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Osmium. Pergamon Press, Oxford, Iridium and PlatinumGoogle Scholar
- 33.Somorjai GA (2010) Introduction to surface chemistry and catalysis. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar