Post-synthesis Treatment of TS-1 with TPAOH: Effect of Hydrophobicity on the Liquid-Phase Oxidation of Furfural to Maleic Acid
- 38 Downloads
A series of modified TS-1 catalysts was prepared by post-synthesis hydrothermal treatment of a parent TS-1 zeolite with solutions of different concentrations of tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH). The treatment results in an advantageous improvement of the catalytic activity for the liquid oxidation of furfural with H2O2 to produce maleic acid. The highest yield of maleic acid (83%) was obtained when using 0.025 M TPAOH solution; while the maximum yield of the untreated TS-1 was 70%. The catalysts were thoroughly characterised by XRD, UV–Vis, ICP–OES, XPS, TEM, N2-adsorption, DRIFT of chemisorbed deuterated acetonitrile and TEM, in order to elucidate the origin of the catalytic improvement. The characterisation studies allowed us to conclude that, besides the well-known creation of mesopores within the zeolite primary particles, the TPAOH treatment also results in the increase of the hydrophobicity balance of the channels and cavities of the zeolites (via silanols removal). Both properties have a relevant effect on the improvement of the catalytic properties.
Financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICINN) (project CTQ2015-64226-C3-1-R) and from CSIC (i-link1048 project) is gratefully acknowledged. Y.R. thanks MINECO for her FPI pre-doctoral grant (BES-2016-077184) and M.R. thanks the MINECO project ENE2016-77055-C3-3-R for her postdoctoral contract.
- 1.Felthouse TR, Horrell JCB,B, Mummey MJ, Kuo Y-J (2001) Maleic anhydride, maleic acid and fumaric acid. In: Othmer D, Kirk RE (eds) Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- 2.Lohbeck K, Fuhrmann HH,W, Fedtke N (2000) Maleic and Fumaric Acids. In: Campbell FT, Pfefferkorn R, Rounsaville JF (eds) Ullmann´s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Weinheim, Germany vol 20. pp 463–473Google Scholar
- 6.Xia C, Lin M, Zheng A, Xiang Y, Zhu B, Xu G, Shu X (2016) Irreversible deactivation of hollow TS-1 zeolite caused by the formation of acidic amorphous TiO2–SiO2 nanoparticles in a commercial cyclohexanone ammoximation process. J Catal 338:340–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2016.02.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Lv G, Chen C, Lu B, Li J, Yang Y, Chen C, Deng T, Zhu Y, Hou X (2016) Vanadium-oxo immobilized onto Schiff base modified graphene oxide for efficient catalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural into maleic anhydride. RSC Adv 6(103):101277–101282. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA21795H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Alonso-Fagúndez N, Laserna V, Alba-Rubio AC, Mengibar M, Heras A, Mariscal R, Granados ML (2014) Poly-(styrene sulphonic acid): an acid catalyst from polystyrene waste for reactions of interest in biomass valorization. Catal Today 234:285–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2014.01.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Alba-Rubio AC, Fierro JLG, León-Reina L, Mariscal R, Dumesic JA, López Granados M (2017) Oxidation of furfural in aqueous H2O2 catalysed by titanium silicalite: deactivation processes and role of extraframework Ti oxides. Appl Catal B 202:269–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.09.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Rodenas Y, Mariscal R, Fierro JLG, Martin Alonso D, Dumesic JA, Lopez Granados M (2018) Improving the production of maleic acid from biomass: TS-1 catalysed aqueous phase oxidation of furfural in the presence of [gamma]-valerolactone. Green Chem 20(12):2845–2856. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8GC00857D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Zecchina A, Bordiga S, Spoto G, Marchese L, Petrini G, Leofanti G, Padovan M (1992) Silicalite characterization. 2. IR spectroscopy of the interaction of carbon monoxide with internal and external hydroxyl groups. J Phys Chem 96(12):4991–4997. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100191a048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar