Spatially Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy from Ultra-high Vacuum to Near Ambient Pressure Sample Environments
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Modern scanning photoemission microscopes use zone plates to de-magnify the X-ray beam to nanometer size allowing spatially resolved XPS analysis of materials relevant in nanotechnology. So far these microscopes have been designed to operate in the ultra-high or high vacuum environments as all XPS systems; but at the beginning of this century the dream of K. Siegbahn, the inventor of XPS, to use it in the near ambient or ambient pressure regimes became a reality. Despite the fast development and spread of these setups designed for not spatially resolved experiments, now available both as synchrotron and laboratory facilities, it took more than a decade before a similar result could be extended to photoemission microscopy. The scanning photoemission microscope at Elettra is the first instrument where near ambient pressure conditions for in operando analysis can be fulfilled. This paper shows some recent results obtained at this microscope at different sample environment conditions.
KeywordsIn operando Near ambient pressure XPS Scanning photoelectron microscopy Pt nanoparticles Oxidation
We acknowledge Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste for provision of synchrotron radiation facilities and we would like to thank all the supporting services for assistance in using the beamline Escamicroscopy.
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