Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 60, Issue 6–7, pp 481–491 | Cite as

Energy Level Shifts at the Silica/Ru(0001) Heterojunction Driven by Surface and Interface Dipoles

  • Mengen Wang
  • Jian-Qiang Zhong
  • John Kestell
  • Iradwikanari Waluyo
  • Dario J. Stacchiola
  • J. Anibal BoscoboinikEmail author
  • Deyu LuEmail author


Charge redistribution at heterogeneous interfaces is a fundamental aspect of surface chemistry. Manipulating the amount of charges and the magnitude of dipole moments at the interface in a controlled way has attracted tremendous attention for its potential to modify the activity of heterogeneous catalysts in catalyst design. Two-dimensional ultrathin silica films with well-defined atomic structures have been recently synthesized and proposed as model systems for heterogeneous catalysts studies. R. Wlodarczyk et al. (Phys. Rev. B, 85, 085403 (2012)) have demonstrated that the electronic structure of silica/Ru(0001) can be reversibly tuned by changing the amount of interfacial chemisorbed oxygen. Here we carried out systematic investigations to understand the underlying mechanism through which the electronic structure at the silica/Ru(0001) interface can be tuned. As corroborated by both in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, the observed interface energy level alignments strongly depend on the surface and interfacial charge transfer induced dipoles at the silica/Ru(0001) heterojunction. These observations may help to understand variations in catalytic performance of the model system from the viewpoint of the electronic properties at the confined space between the silica bilayer and the Ru(0001) surface. The same behavior is observed for the aluminosilicate bilayer, which has been previously proposed as a model system for zeolites.


2D zeolites Charge transfer Surface and interface dipoles Energy level shift Density functional theory In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy 



Research carried out in part at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials and at the CSX-2 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704. J.Q Zhong and M. Wang are supported by BNL LDRD Project No. 15-010. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Helpful discussions with Per Hyldgaard concerning the vdW-DF-cx functional are gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

11244_2016_704_MOESM1_ESM.docx (307 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 307 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mengen Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jian-Qiang Zhong
    • 1
  • John Kestell
    • 1
  • Iradwikanari Waluyo
    • 3
  • Dario J. Stacchiola
    • 1
  • J. Anibal Boscoboinik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Deyu Lu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Functional NanomaterialsBrookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA
  2. 2.Materials Science and Engineering DepartmentStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA
  3. 3.Photon Science Division, National Synchrotron Light Source IIBrookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

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