Real-time Simulation of Dual-Layer Catalytic Converters Based on the Internal Mass Transfer Coefficient Approach
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A new numerically efficient simulator for dual layer catalysts is implemented and its performance is demonstrated using the example of the dual layer ammonia oxidation catalyst. For the solution of the radial mass balances, each washcoat layer is represented by a single volume element and the diffusive mass fluxes into and within the washcoat are computed based on the concept of the internal mass transfer coefficients. The performance of the new simulator is compared against a reference simulator that fully resolves the concentration profiles in the washcoat. For a steady state test case, the error introduced by the new solution scheme is below 2 % for all relevant exhaust components. For a transient test case, the deviations become more significant. For the simulation of a WHTC, the maximum deviation in the NH3 outlet concentration is 23.3 %, whereas the cumulated NH3 emissions deviate by 10.6 %.With the new simulator, the 1800 s of the transient WHTC cycle can be simulated within 53 s on a standard laptop, 30 times faster than real time.
KeywordsExhaust gas aftertreatment Diffusion limitation Real-time simulation Mass transfer coefficient
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