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Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 2–14 | Cite as

Reaction Mechanisms in the Direct Carboxylation of Alcohols for the Synthesis of Acyclic Carbonates

  • Michele Aresta
  • Angela Dibenedetto
  • Antonella Angelini
  • Imre Pápai
Original Paper

Abstract

Dialkylcarbonates, (RO)2CO, can be prepared from alcohols and CO2. Such reaction is clean (water is the co-product) but thermodynamically disfavored. In principle, the reaction mechanism of formation of carbonates requires the acid–base activation of alcohols. Existing data support that the first step is the formation of the alkoxo group RO that reacts with CO2 to give the hemicarbonate moiety ROC(O)O. The latter converts into the relevant carbonate (RO)2CO following different pathways depending on the catalyst used. DFT calculations have been used in a few cases to support the reaction mechanism. Transition states relevant to various mechanistic scenarios have been identified. The results indicated that the relative energies of these transition states depend on the nature of the alkyl group and the molecularity of the reactive step. Organic catalysts, homogeneous-, heterogenized- and heterogeneous-metal systems are discussed in this paper and the known relevant mechanisms compared. Water represents a serious limitation to equilibrium shift to the right and can affect the catalysts. Techniques used to remove water are also discussed.

Keywords

Organic acyclic carbonates Alcohols carboxylation Reaction mechanism Water removal 

Notes

Acknowledgments

One of us (AA) thanks TOTAL for a partial financial support to part of the present work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Aresta
    • 1
  • Angela Dibenedetto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Antonella Angelini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Imre Pápai
    • 3
  1. 1.CIRCCBariItaly
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of BariBariItaly
  3. 3.Research Center for Natural Sciences, HASBudapestHungary

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