Cluster Models for Studying CO2 Reduction on Semiconductor Photoelectrodes
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Sunlight-powered CO2-photoelectroreduction is a promising and potentially sustainable route to recycle CO2 byproducts back into energy-dense liquid fuels. One of the most intriguing processes known to date is the pyridinium-catalyzed CO2 reduction on p-type GaP photoelectrodes, where conversion to methanol has reported faradaic efficiencies nearing 100 %. Modeling this reactive environment requires understanding energetics of differently charged species at semiconductor electrodes, so we develop a cluster model and benchmark binding energies from it to those from Kohn–Sham density functional theory calculations that employ periodic boundary conditions. We then use this cluster model to theoretically predict structures and binding energies for charged and neutral adsorbates on the GaP(110) surface with and without the presence of van der Waals interactions and implicit solvation. We discuss the relative magnitudes of binding energy contributions for different adsorbates considered relevant in this CO2 reduction process and provide details showing pitfalls when using cluster models.
KeywordsCarbon dioxide reduction Gallium phosphide photoelectrodes Density functional theory calculations
Funding from the DOD-MURI program under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-10-1-057 is gratefully acknowledged as well as computer time on the EINSTEIN system at the Navy DoD Supercomputing Resource Center and the Office of Information Technology’s High Performance Computing Center at Princeton University. We thank Prof. Andrew Bocarsly and his group for helpful discussions. We thank Andrew Ritzmann for his assistance running some calculations.
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