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Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 56, Issue 9–10, pp 522–526 | Cite as

Low-Temperature Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Bi- and Tri-metallic Catalyst Templates

  • O. Pitkänen
  • N. Halonen
  • A.-R. Leino
  • J. Mäklin
  • Á. Dombovári
  • J. H. Lin
  • G. Tóth
  • K. KordásEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Low temperature growth process of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) over bi-metallic (Co–Fe) and tri-metallic (Ni–Co–Fe) catalysts on Si/Al/Al2O3 substrates is carried out from acetylene precursor using hydrogen, ammonia or nitrogen as a carrier in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition system. Using the tri-metallic Ni–Co–Fe catalyst template, vertically aligned CNTs of ~700 nm length could be grown already at 450 °C within 10 min using ammonia as a carrier. Within the same period of time, on bi-metallic Co–Fe catalyst templates, ~250 nm long aligned nanotubes emerged already at 400 °C in nitrogen carrier. At low temperatures most of the catalyst materials were elevated from the support by the grown nanotubes indicating tip growth mechanism. The structure of catalyst layers and nanotube films was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

Keywords

Structure of carbon nanotubes Crystal growth from vapors Chemical vapor deposition Catalysis in nanotechnology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

N.H., A.-R.L. and G.T are grateful for the support from the NGS-Nano, GETA and Academy of Finland, respectively. The work is financed by the projects Thema-CNT (EU FP7) and RoCaNaMe (Academy of Finland) programs.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Pitkänen
    • 1
  • N. Halonen
    • 1
  • A.-R. Leino
    • 1
  • J. Mäklin
    • 1
  • Á. Dombovári
    • 1
  • J. H. Lin
    • 1
  • G. Tóth
    • 1
  • K. Kordás
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, and EMPART Research Group of Infotech Oulu, Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  2. 2.Technical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Chemical-Biological CenterUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden

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