Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Phenol Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Over Ru Nanoparticles Formed in Hypercrosslinked Polystyrene

  • 260 Accesses

  • 12 Citations


Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenols is an important process of environmental catalysis, allowing one to reach nearly complete oxidation of phenols to non-hazardous compounds. Here we report syntheses of nanocatalysts based on Ru-containing nanoparticles (NPs) formed in the pores of hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HPS) and their catalytic properties in the phenol CWAO under mild conditions. The Ru species were incorporated in HPS using wet impregnation of ruthenium(IV) hydroxychloride in a complex solvent followed by the NaOH and H2O2 treatment. The catalysts containing from 0.5 to 2.8 wt% of Ru were studied by X-ray fluorescence analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and liquid nitrogen physisorption methods. The NP sizes were controlled by the pores of HPS. The two types of Ru species: Ru(IV) and Ru(IV) × nH2O, constituted the NP composition. The effects of the phenol and catalyst initial concentrations and temperature were investigated in the phenol CWAO. Removal of 97 % of phenol was observed for the most active catalyst containing 2.8 wt% of Ru.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. 1.

    Pintar A, Batista J, Tisler T (2008) Appl Catal B 84:30

  2. 2.

    Oliviero L, Barbier J Jr, Duprez D, Wahyu H, Ponton JW, Metcalfe IS, Mantzavinos D (2001) Appl Catal B 35:1

  3. 3.

    Castillejos-Lopez E, Maroto-Valiente A, Nevskaia DM, Munoz V, Rodriguez-Ramos I, Guerrero-Ruiz A (2009) Catal Today 143:355

  4. 4.

    Besson M, Beziat J-C, Blanc B, Durecu S, Gallezot P (2000) Studies in surface science and catalysis, Vol. 130. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 1553

  5. 5.

    Delmas H, Creanga C, Julcour-Lebigue C, Wilhelm AM (2009) Chem Eng J 152:189

  6. 6.

    Sulman E, Doluda V, Lakina N, Bykov A, Matveeva V, Bronstein L (2010) Studies in surface science and catalysis, Vol. 175. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 361

  7. 7.

    Arena F, Italiano C, Spadaro L (2012) Appl Catal B 115–116:336

  8. 8.

    Bistan M, Tisler T, Pintar A (2012) Catal Commun 22:74

  9. 9.

    Martin-Hernandez M, Carrera J, Suarez-Ojeda ME, Besson M, Descorme C (2012) Appl Catal B 123–124:141

  10. 10.

    Quesada-Penate I, Julcour-Lebigue C, Jauregui-Haza UJ, Wilhelm AM, Delmas H (2012) J Hazard Mater 221–222:131

  11. 11.

    Vallet A, Besson M, Ovejero G, Garcia J (2012) J Hazard Mater 227–228:410

  12. 12.

    Yang S, Wang X, Yang H, Sun Y, Liu Y (2012) J Hazard Mater 233–234:18

  13. 13.

    Taboada CD, Batista J, Pintar A, Levec J (2009) Appl Catal B 89:375

  14. 14.

    Triki M, Ksibi Z, Ghorbel A, Medina F (2009) Microporous Mesoporous Mater 117:431

  15. 15.

    Oliviero L, Barbier J Jr, Duprez D, Guerrero-Ruiz A, Bachiller-Baeza B, Rodriguez-Ramos I (2000) Appl Catal B 25:267

  16. 16.

    Li N, Descorme C, Besson M (2007) J Hazard Mater 146:602

  17. 17.

    Arena F, Italiano C, Raneri A, Saja C (2010) Appl Catal B 99:321

  18. 18.

    Park JY, Zhang Y, Joo SH, Jung Y, Somorjai GA (2012) Catalysis Today 181:133

  19. 19.

    Vinayan BP, Jafri RI, Nagar R, Rajalakshmi N, Sethupathi K, Ramaprabhu S (2012) Int J Hydrogen Energ 37:412

  20. 20.

    Zhang H, Toshima N (2011) Appl Catal A 400:9

  21. 21.

    Liu W-M, Hu Y-Q, Tu S-T (2010) J Hazard Mater 179:545

  22. 22.

    Sulman E, Doluda V, Dzwigaj S, Marceau E, Kustov L, Tkachenko O, Bykov A, Matveeva V, Sulman M, Lakina N (2007) J Mol Catal A 278:112

  23. 23.

    Sulman EM, Ivanov AA, Chernyavsky VS, Sulman MG, Bykov AI, Sidorov PI, Doluda VY, Matveeva VG, Bronstein LM, Stein BD, Kharitonov AS (2011) Chem Eng J 176–177:33

  24. 24.

    Sulman EM, Matveeva VG, Doluda VY, Sidorov AI, Lakina NV, Bykov AV, Sulman MG, Valetsky PM, Kustov LM, Tkachenko OP, Stein BD, Bronstein LM (2011) Appl Catal B 94:200

  25. 25.

    Sulman EM, Valetsky PM, Sulman MG, Bronstein LM, Sidorov AI, Doluda VY, Matveeva VG (2011) Chem Eng Process 50:1041

  26. 26.

    Keav S, Martin A, Barbier J Jr, Duprez D (2008) Catal Today 151:143

  27. 27.

    Nousir S, Keav S, Barbier J Jr, Bensitel M, Brahmi R, Duprez D (2008) Appl Catal B 84:723

  28. 28.

    Doluda VY, Sulman EM, Matveeva VG, Sulman MG, Lakina NV, Sidorov AI, Valetsky PM, Bronstein LM (2007) Chem Eng J 134:256

Download references


This work has been supported by the NATO science for peace program SfP-981438, Russian Foundation for Basic Research 11-08-01125-a and The Russian Ministry of Education and Science.

Author information

Correspondence to V. Yu. Doluda.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Doluda, V.Y., Sulman, E.M., Matveeva, V.G. et al. Phenol Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Over Ru Nanoparticles Formed in Hypercrosslinked Polystyrene. Top Catal 56, 688–695 (2013).

Download citation


  • CWAO
  • Oxidation
  • Phenol
  • Catalysis
  • Hypercrosslinked polystyrene
  • Ruthenium