Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Deactivation of Ion Exchange Catalysts by Acetonitrile and Methylamine

  • 215 Accesses

Abstract

The deactivating effect of acetonitrile (ACN) and monomethylamine (MMA) on ion-exchange resins Amberlyst 35 WET and Amberlyst 15 WET in the ETBE synthesis at different temperatures and poison concentrations has been studied. Deactivation is enhanced at high temperature and high poison concentration. MMA presents a higher deactivating effect than ACN. Amberlyst 35 WET is more active, and presents a higher resistance to deactivation than Amberlyst 15 WET. At integral regime, a stochiometric ratio of the fed poison and the active centers has been determined. At differential regime, two different periods have been observed as deactivation progresses, and an empirical expression of the exponential activity decay for Amberlyst 35 WET is proposed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Abbreviations

A35:

Macroporous ion exchange resin AmberlystTM 35 WET

A15:

Macroporous ion exchange resin AmberlystTM 15 WET

ACN:

Acetonitrile

C4:

Olefin mixture composed mainly by compounds with 4 carbon atoms

ETBE:

Ethyl tert-butyl ether

EtOH:

Ethanol

eq:

Value at reaction equilibrium

FCC:

Fluid catalytic cracking

FID:

Flame ionization detector

GC:

Gas chromatograph

IB:

Isobutene

MFC:

Mass flow controller

MMA:

Monomethylamine

MTBE:

Methyl tert-butyl ether

ETBE:

Ethyl tert-butyl ether

r:

Reaction rate (mol g−1 h−1)

A/I :

EtOH/IB molar ratio at the reactor inlet (dimensionless)

T:

Temperature (K or °C)

XIB :

Isobutene conversion at the reactor outlet (dimensionless)

References

  1. 1.

    Unzelman GH (1989) Oil Gas J 87(15):33

  2. 2.

    Tsai MJ, Kolodziej R, Ching D (2002) Hydrocarb Process Feb:81

  3. 3.

    Miracca I, Tagliabue L, Trotta R (1996) Chem Eng Sci 51:2349

  4. 4.

    Hickey TP, Byeseda JJ (1995) US Patent 5421972

  5. 5.

    Ramírez-Corredores MM, Hernández Z, Guerra J, Alvarez R, Medina J (2003) Fuel Process Technol 81:143

  6. 6.

    Ancillotti F, Fattore V (1998) Fuel Process Technol 57:163

  7. 7.

    Parra D, Izquierdo JF, Cunill F, Tejero J, Fité C, Iborra M, Vila M (1998) Ind Eng Chem Res 37:3575

  8. 8.

    Quiroga M, Capeletti MR, Fígoli N, Sedran U (1999) Appl Catal A Gen 177:37

  9. 9.

    Marston CR (1994) Fuel Reform 4:42

  10. 10.

    A35 and A15 product data sheets. http://www.amberlyst.com. Accessed May 2010

  11. 11.

    Iborra M, Tejero J, Cunill F, Izquierdo JF (2000) Ind Eng Chem Res 39:1416

  12. 12.

    Izquierdo JF, Cunill F, Vila M, Iborra M, Tejero J (1994) Ind Eng Chem Res 33:2830

  13. 13.

    Siril PF, Cross HE, Brown DR (2008) J Mol Catal A Chem 279:63

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to C. Fité.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

González, R., Fité, C., Cunill, F. et al. Deactivation of Ion Exchange Catalysts by Acetonitrile and Methylamine. Top Catal 54, 1054 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11244-011-9725-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Catalytic deactivation
  • Ion-exchange resins
  • Monomethylamine
  • Acetonitrile
  • ETBE synthesis