Topics in Catalysis

, Volume 52, Issue 9, pp 1131–1161 | Cite as

Impact of Zeolites on the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

  • W. VermeirenEmail author
  • J.-P. Gilson
Original Paper


The general features of zeolites that led to their widespread use in oil refining and petrochemistry are highlighted as well as the details of their impact on selected processes. The analysis of the catalyst market and the position of zeolites therein is a good indication of their strategic importance. Zeolites have brought many disruptive changes to these fields (e.g. FCC). They impacted also these industries in an equally important way, although more subtle, by incremental improvement of processes. The new and vast challenges facing oil refining and petrochemistry as well as the managed transition to sustainable environmental benign transport fuel industries and chemical industries will require creative science and technologies. Zeolites offer the basis of many of these technological solutions provided efficient and balanced cooperations between industry and academia are further developed.


Zeolites Molecular sieves Oil refining Petrochemistry Emerging technologies Emerging feedstock 



JPG wishes to thank the St-Nikon Foundation for its continuous support over the years in the fields of zeolite and scientific management. WV expresses his appreciation to Philippe Bodart for helping the documentation and to Total Petrochemicals for allowing the preparation of this manuscript. Finally, WV thanks Marjel, Charlotte and Marie, for patience and understanding during the preparation of this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Avidan AA (1993) Stud Surf Sci Catal 76:1Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moulijn JA, Makkee M, van Diepen A (2001) Chemical process technology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, p 41Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Magee JS, Mitchell MM Jr (1992) Fluid catalytic cracking: science and technology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (2005) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marcilly C (2001) Stud Surf Sci Catal 135:37Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Corma A, Martinez A (2005) Stud Surf Sci Catal 157:337Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marcilly C (2005) Acido-basic catalysis—application to refining and petrochemistry. Technip, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kerr GT (1966) Inorg Chem 5:1537Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen NY (2001) Ind Eng Chem Res 40(20):4157Google Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    Knight LM, Lewis GJ (2004) Stud Surf Sci Catal 154(1):171Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewis GJ, Miller MA, Moscoso JG, Wilson BA, Knight LM, Wilson ST (2004) Stud Surf Sci Catal 154(1):364Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lewis GJ, Miller MA, WO 2005042149 (2005); Rohde LM, Lewis GJ, WO 2005113439 (2005); Jan D-Y, Johnson J, US 2006224031 (2006), assigned to UOP LLCGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bare SR, Methanol to Olefins: development of a commercial catalytic process, presentation available on Accessed August 2008
  15. 15.
    Moreau F, Moreau P, Gnep NS, Magnoux P, Lacombe S, Guisnet M (2006) Microporous Mesoporous Mater 90:327Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Corma A, Martinez-Soria V, Schnoeveld E (2000) J Catal 192:163Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuznicki SM, Bell VA, Nair S, Hillhouse HW, Jacubinas RM, Braunbarth CM, Toby BH, Tsapatsis M (2001) Nature 412:720Google Scholar
  18. 18. Accessed August 2008
  19. 19.
    Cherry BR, Nyman M, Alam TM, Solid J (2004) State Chem 177:2079Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vartuli JC, Degnan T (2007) Stud Surf Sci Catal 168:837Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schoonover MW, Cohn MJ (2000) Top Catal 13:367Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karge HG, Weitkamp J (eds) (2002) Molecular sieves, science and technology, vol 3. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    de Jong KP (1998) Cattech 2:87Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stiles AB, Koch TA (1995) Catalyst manufacture. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pernicone N (1997) Catal Today 34(3–4):535Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Earl DJ, Deem MW (2006) Ind Eng Chem Res 45:5449Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smit B, Maesen TLM (2008) Nature 451:671Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Akporiaye DE, Dahn IM, Karlsson A, Wendelbo R (1998) Angew Chem Int Ed 37:609Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Briker M, Vanden Bussche K, McGonegal C, Karlsson A, Akporiaye DE, Dahn IM, Plassen M (2000) Combi 2000, San Diego, January 2000Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Prada R (April 6, 2004) Oil Gas J 102(16):58 or Appl Catal A: general 261:247 (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    The intelligence report: Business Shift in the Global Catalytic Process Industries 2005–2011 (May 2006). The Catalyst Group Resources, IncGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    World Catalysts (January 2007). The Freedonia Group, IncGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lacson J, Zeolites and Lauriente DH (2002, 2005), Zeolites, Chemical Economic Handbook: Marketing Research Report, SRI ConsultingGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    The Economics of Zeolites (2003) Roskill Information ServicesGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Colella C (2005) Stud Surf Sci Catal 157:13Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marcilly CR (2000) Top Catal 13:357Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Degnan TF (2000) Top Catal 13:349Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pujado PR, Rabo JA, Antos GJ, Gembicki SA (1992) Catal Today 13:113Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sherman JD (1999) Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 96:3471Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marcilly C (2004) In: Atwood JL, Steed JW (eds) Encyclopedia of supermolecular chemistry, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, Basel, p 1599Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kresge CT, Dhingra SS (2006) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 5 edn. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, p 811Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Di Renzo F, Fajula F (2005) Stud Surf Sci Catal 157:1Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barger P (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 239Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tanabe K, Hölderich WF (1999) Appl Catal A 181:399Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Koottungal L, Nakamura D (2007) Oil Gas J October:52. Accessed August 2008
  46. 46.
    Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 1Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gélin P, des Courrières T (1991) Appl Catal 72:179Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Corma A, Grande M, Fornés V, Cartlidge S, Shatlock MP (1990) Appl Catal 66:45Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gélin P, Gueguen C (1988) Appl Catal 38:225Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kubicek N, Vaudry F, Chiche BH, Hudec P, Di Renzo F, Schulz P, Fajula F (1998) Appl Catal A 175:159Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sie ST, Krishna R (1998) Rev Chem Eng 14:159Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rostrup-Nielsen JR (1997) Catal Today 37:225Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Méthivier A (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 209Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jensen RH (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 75Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wauquier J-P (1994) Le Raffinage du Pétrole: Pétrole Brut, Produits Pétroliers, Schémas de Fabrication. Technip, Paris, p 1Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leprince P (1998) Le Raffinage du Pétrole: Procédés de Transformation. Technip, ParisGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Meyers RA (2004) Handbook of petroleum refining processes, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jones DSJ, Pujado PR (2006) Handbook of petroleum processing. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    de Jong KP (1996) Catal Today 29:171Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sie ST (1994) Stud Surf Sci Catal 85:587Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sie ST (1997) In: Ertl G, Knozinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of heterogeneous catalysis. VCH, Weinheim, p 1998Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sheldon RA (1997) Chem Ind 1:12Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marin GB, Kapteijn F, van Dieoen AE, Moulijn JA (2000) In: Derouane EG, Lemos F, Corma A, Ribeiro FR (eds) Combinatorial catalysis and high throughput catalyst design and testing. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 239Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schmidt F, Köhler E (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 153Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ducourty B, Szabo G, Dath J-P, Gilson J-P, Goupil J-M, Cornet D (2004) Appl Catal A 269:203Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Duchet J-C, van Gestel J, Guillaume D, Monnier A, Dujardin C, Gilson J-P, Szabo G, Nascimento P (2001) J Catal 198:328Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Martens JA, Tielen M, Jacobs PA (1987) Catal Today 1(4):435Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Martens JA, Jacobs PA (1990) Theoretical aspects of heterogeneous catalysis. Van Nortrand, ReinholdGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Furey RL (1985) Society of automotive engineers. Technical paper series, Paper No. 852116Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Di Renzo S, Fajula F, Figueras F, Des Courières T, US 5165906 (1992), assigned to ELF AQUITAINEGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McQueen D, Chiche B, Fajula F, Auroux A, Guimon C, Fitoussi F, Schulz P (1996) J Catal 161:587Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Calero S, Schenk A, Dubbeldam D, Maesen TLM, Smit B (2004) J Catal 228:121Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    van Runstraat A, Kamp JA, Stobbelaar PJ, van Grondelle J, Krijnen S, van Santen RA (1997) J Catal 171:77Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tromp M, van Bokhoven JA, Garriga Oostenbrink MT, Bitter JH, de Jong KP, Koningsberger DC (2000) J Catal 190:209Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vu NT, van Gestel J, Gilson J-P, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Enos JL (1962) Petroleum progress and profits—a history of process innovation. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Freeman C, Soete L (1999) The economics of industrial innovation. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Magee JS, Mitchell MM Jr (1993) Fluid catalytic cracking: science and technology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    von Ballmoos R, Harris DH, Magee JS (1997) In: Ertl G, Knozinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of heterogeneous catalysis. VCH, Weinheim, p 1955Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Habib ET, Zhao X, Yaluris G, Cheng WC, Boock LT, Gilson J-P (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 105Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Venuto PB, Habib ET (1979) Fluid catalytic cracking with zeolite catalysts. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rase HF (2000) Handbook of commercial catalyst: heterogeneous catalysts. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Roberie TG, Hildebrandt D, Creighton J, Gilson J-P (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 57Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    O’Connor P (2006) In: Lee S (ed) Encyclopedia of chemical processing. Taylor & Francis, New York, p 371Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    van Veen JAR (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 131Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Maxwell IE, Minderhoud JK, Stork WHJ, van Veen JAR (1997) In: Ertl G, Knozinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of heterogeneous catalysis. VCH, Weinheim, p 2017Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gosselink JW (1998) Cattech 2:127Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Stork WHJ (1997) Stud Surf Sci Catal 106:41Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Leprince P (1998) Le Raffinage du Pétrole: Procédés de Transformation. Technip, Paris, p 550Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Weitkamp J, Ernst S (1990) In: Barthomeuf D, Derouane EG, Hölderich W (eds) Guidelines for mastering the properties of molecular sieves. Plenum Press, New York, p 343Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Degnan TF, Kennedy CR (1993) Chem Eng J 39:607Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    de Jong KP (2003) Catal Rev Sci Eng 45:297Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Roth WJ, Vartuli JC (2005) Stud Surf Sci Catal 157:91Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Čejka J (2005) Stud Surf Sci Catal 157:111Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Taylor RJ, McCormack AJ (1992) Ind Eng Chem Res 31:1731Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Claude MC, Vanbutsele G, Martens JA (2001) J Catal 203:213Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ernst S, Kumar R, Neuber M, Weitkamp J (1987) Stud Surf Sci Catal 39:531Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Deldari H (2005) Appl Catal A 293:1Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Daage M (2005) In: Guisnet M, Gilson J-P (eds) Zeolites for cleaner technologies. Imperial College Press, London, p 167Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Degnan TF (2003) J Catal 216:32Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kerby MC, Degnan TF, Marler DO, Beck JS (2005) Catal Today 104:55Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Homan Free HW, Schockaert T, Sonnemans JWM (1993) Fuel Process Technol 35:111Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Koskinen M, Sourander M, Nurminen M (February 2006) Hydrocarbon Process Int Ed 81Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kalnes TN, Marker T, Shonnard DR, Koers KP (2008) Biofuels Technol Q4:7Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jakkula J, Niemi V, Nikkonen J, Purola V-M, Myllyola J, Aalto P, Lehtonen J, Alopaeus V (2004) US 2004230085, assigned to FORTUM OYJGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Huber GW, O’Connor Pl, Corma A (2007) Appl Catal A 329(1):120Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brevoord E, Janbroers S, Harte MH, Aalto P, Harlin E, Osterhom H, Mas Cabre FR (2007) WO 2007107336, assigned to ALBEMARLE NETHERLANDS BVGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Clark RH, Wedlock DJ, Cherrillo RA (2005) Fuel Lub 114:1095Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Desmarest T (2004) Energies du Futur & environement, Presentation at AFTP, Paris, France, October 20–21, 2004Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chauvel A, Lefebvre G (1989) Petrochemical processes 1. Syngas derivatives and major hydrocarbons. Technip, ParisGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chen NY, Yan TY (1986) Ind Eng Chem Proc Res Dev 25(1):151Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Miyata T, Akaishi T (Winter 1995/1996) Hydrocarbon Technology International Quarterly 113Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Choi S, Oh SH, Kim YS, Seong KH, Lim BS, Lee JH (2006) Catal Surv Asia 10(2):110Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gentry J, AIChe, The 2008 Spring national meeting, petrochemicals and derivates, paper 95EGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Doolan P, Pujado P (September 1989) Hydrocarbon Process Int Ed 72Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mank L, Minkkinen A, Shaddick R (Summer 1992) Hydrocarbon Technology International Quarterly 69Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Saito S, Hirabayashi K, Shibata S, Kondo T, Adachi K, Inoue S (March 1992) NPRA annual meeting AM-92-38Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Blom NJ, EP 0434052 (1991) assigned to TOPSOE HALDOR ASGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Catal Rev Newslett 3:10 (1995) or O’Rear, D.J.; Scheuerman, G.L. Zeolite Catalysis in Chevron, Book of Abstracts, 214th ACS National Meeting; Las Vegas, NV, September 7–11, 1997 or
  120. 120.
    Catal Rev Newslett 6(2):7 (1993) or Solis, J. J.; Moser, M.D.; Ibanez, F.J. RZ platforming process improves profitability–first new unit at CEPSA, Algeciras, European Oil Refining Conference & Exhibition, Cascais, Portugal, June 18–20, 1997 or
  121. 121.
    Anton GJ, Aitani AM (eds) (2004) Catalytic naphtha reforming. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Chemical Market Associates, Inc. (2004) World benzene analysis. HoustonGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Thai TC, Albright LF (2006) In: Lee S (ed) Encyclopedia of chemical processing, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons. Taylor & Francis, New York, p 2975Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Méreaudeau P, Naccache C (1997) Catal Rev 39(1&2):5Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Davis RJ (1994) HCR Concise Review. John Wiley & Sons, New York, p 41Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Davies S (2008) Petrochemical Industry Overview, Chemical Economics Handbook: Marketing Research Report, SRI ConsultingGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Guisnet M, Gnep NS, Morin S (2000) Microporous Mesoporous Mater 35–36:47Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cejka J, Wichterlova B (2002) Catal Rev 44(3):375Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Magne-Drisch J, Joly J-F, Merlen E, Alario F, US 6635791 (2003); Rouleau L, Lacombe S, Alario F, Merlen E, Kolenda F, Magne-Drisch J, US 6337063 (2002); Alario F, Joly J-F, Magne-Drisch J, Merlen E, Benazzi E, Lacombe S, US 6337427 (2002), assigned to INST FRANCAIS DU PETROLE Rouleau L, Lacombe S, Alario F, Merlen E, Kolenda F, Magne-Drisch J, US 6342200 (2002); Merlen E, Alario F, Martin O, Ferrer N, Lacombe S, Rouleau L, Magne-Drisch J, US 6514479 (2003); Joly J-F, Magne-Drisch J, Alario F, Merlen E, Benazzi E, Lacombe S, US 6313363 (2001); Joly J-F, Magne-Drisch J, Alario F, Merlen E, Benazzi E, Lacombe S, US 6333289 (2001), assigned to INST FRANCAIS DU PETROLEGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Moreau P, Gnep NS, Magnoux P, Guillon E, Lacombe S, Guisnet M (2008) Stud Surf Sci Catal 174(2):1179Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Degnan TF, Smith CM, Venkat CR (2001) Appl Catal A 221:283Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Woodle GB (2006) In: Lee S (ed) Encyclopedia of chemical processing, ethylbenzene. Taylor & Francis, New York, p 929Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Maertz B, Chen SS, Venkat CR, Mazzone DN (Autumn 1996) Hydrocarbon Technology International Quarterly 21Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Guarino RF, Li CH (October 1999) Hydrocarbon Eng 39Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Schmidt RJ (2006) In: Lee S (ed) Encyclopedia of chemical processing, cumene. Taylor & Francis, New York, p 603Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Meima GR, Van den Aalst MJM, Samson MSU, Garces JM, Lee JG (1996) Erdoel Erdgas Kohle 7/8:315Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Perego C, Ingallina P (2002) Catal Today 73:3Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Degnan TF (2007) Recent progress in the development of zeolitic catalysts for the petroleum refining and petrochemical manufacturing industries. In: 15th international zeolite conference Beijing, China, August 12–17, 2007Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Chitnis GK, Dandekar AB, Umansky BS, Brignac GB, Stokes J, Leet WA (2005) NPRA annual meeting, San Francisco, March 13–15, 2005Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Köhler E, Schmidt F, Wernicke HJ, De Pontes M, Roberts HL (Summer 1995) Hydrocarbon Technology International Quarterly 37Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Godmarks JS, Mathys GMK, Beckers HJ, Yarbrough CM, Brown SH, Lim Y-M, US 2007213575 (2007); Brown SH, Mathys GM, US 2007213576 (2007); Godmarks JS, Mathys GMK, Beckers HJ, Yarbrough CM, Brown SH, Lim Y-M, WO 2007104385 (2007), assigned to EXXONMOBIL CHEMICAL PATENTS INCGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Knottenbelt C (2002) Catal Today 71:437Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lieber W, Wagner M (2004) Erdoel Erdgas Kohle 120:323Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hollerbach SD, Van Broekhoven EH, Nat PJ, Nousianinen H, Jakkula J (2002) ERTC 7th annual meeting, Paris, 18–20 November 2002Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Feller A, Lercher JA (2004) Adv Catal 48:229Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mukherjee M, Dan Sunciu S (2005) World Refining 15(4):28Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Petkovic LM, Ginosar DM (2004) Appl Catal A 275(1–2):235Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ringelhan C, Burgfels G, Neumayr JG, Seuffert W, Klose J, Kurth V (2004) Catal Today 97:277Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Bhirud V, Foley T, Pujado P (October 9–11, 2002) Proceedings of the DMGK-conference, Berlin, Germany, p 115Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Morigami Y, Kondo M, Abe J, Kita H, Okamoto K (2001) Sep Purif Technol 25:251Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Li Y, Zhou H, Zhu G, Liu J, Yang W (2007) J Membr Sci 297:10Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Kerze AD, Sato T (March 2007) ARTC conference Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Brown SH, Waldecher JR, Lourvanij K, WO 2007058705 (2007); Brown SH, Mohr GD, Clark MC, Lawrence S, WO 2006130248 (2006), assigned to EXXONMOBIL CHEM PATENTS INCGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Meriaudeau P, Naccache C (1999) Adv Catal 44:505Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Guisnet M, Andy P, Gnep NS, Benazzi E, Travers C (1999) Oil Gas Sci Technol 54(1):23Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Weidert DJ (2000) AIChE Spring meeting, March 5–7, 2000Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cowley M (2006) Energy Fuels 20(5):1771Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Thomas PJ, Stephen PT (1993) Oil Gas J 24:54Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lillwitz LD (2001) Appl Catal A 221:337Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Girotti G (2003) ERTC petrochemicals, ParisGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Zinger S (July to September 2005) Petroleum Technology Quarterly 10(4):125Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Vermeiren W, Wei DH, James RB, Andersen JM (2003) Hydrocarbon Eng 8(10):79Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Koss U (May 1999) Hydrocarbon Eng 66Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ruziska PA, Steffens TR (April 2001) AIChE Spring meeting, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Tsunoda T, Sekiguchi M (2008) Catal Surv Asia 12:1Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Tallman M, Borsos S (June 2000) EPTC, PragueGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Teng J, Xie Z (2007) ERTC petrochemical conference, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gentry JC (March 2000) CMAI world petrochemical conferenceGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Das J, Halgeri AB, US 2002151758 (2002); Das J, Halgeri AB, US 2003092561 (2003), assigned to INDIAN PETROCHEMICALS CORP LTD Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Breen JP, Burch R, Kulkarni M, McLaughlin D, Collier PJ, Golunski SE (2007) Appl Catal A 316:53Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nehlsen JP, Mukherjee M (2007) AIChE Spring meetingGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Stephen K (19 March 2007) Chemical & Engineering News 46 or Mukherjee M, Nehlsen J, Dixon J, Dan Suciu G, ERTC Petrochemicals Conference 2008, CannesGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Chen JQ, Bozzano A, Glover B, Fuglerud T, Kvisle S (2005) Catal Today 106:103Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Liu Z (2007) CTLtec 2007—4th forum on coal conversions technologies & investments, Beijing, March 14–15, 2007Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Highlights from DICP in J Nat Gas Chem (2006)15(4) [] or China Chemical Reporter (6 July 2005) 16(19):15Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    China Chemical Reporter (16 November 2007) 14 or Alperowicz N (17 November 2008) Chemical Week 170(35):21Google Scholar
  177. 177. TheLamp_3_2005/story4.asp. Accessed December 2005
  178. 178.
    Koempel H, Liebner W (2007) Stud Surf Sci Catal 167:261Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Makoto N (2005) J Jpn Inst Energy 84(4):335Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Saruwatari T, Ohue N, Wakui K, Yamakawa F, Furuswa K, Umeki T, Akiyama K, Osada K, Aoi N (2007) 4th Asian DME conference, Fukuoka, Japan, p 439Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wang L, Tao L, Xie M, Xu G, Huang J, Xu Y (1993) Catal Lett 21:35Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Japan Chemical Week (6 October 2005) 46(2337):1Google Scholar
  183. 183.
  184. 184.
    Iaccino LL, Stavens EL, Mohr GD, Vincent MJ, WO 2006068800 (2006); Iaccino LL, Sangar N, Stavens EL, US 2007249740 (2007), assigned to EXXONMOBIL CHEM PATENTS INCGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Honda K, Chen X, Zhang Z-G (2008) Appl Catal A 351:122Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Yoshimura Y, Kijima N, Hayakawa T, Murata K, Suzuki K, Mizukami F, Matano K, Konishi T, Oikawa T, Saito M, Shiojima T, Shiozawa K, Sawada G, Sato K, Matsuo S, Yamaoka N (2000) Catal Surv Jpn 4(2):157–167Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Eng C (2007) AIChE Spring national neeting, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Martino G, Courty P, Marcilly C (1997) In: Ertl G, Knozinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of heterogeneous catalysis. VCH, Weinheim, p 1801Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    van Camp C (2005) Catal Today 106:15Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Spellings J (2006) The outlook for energy: a view to 2030. ExxonMobil, Irving. Available at: Accessed December 2006
  191. 191.
    Lovins AB, Kyle Datta E (2005) Winning the oil end game. Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass. Available at: Accessed December 2005
  192. 192.
    van der Veer J (2002) The successful market introduction of sustainable technology. In: EET conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, March 14, 2002Google Scholar
  193. 193.
  194. 194.
  195. 195.
    Junginger M, Faaij A, Rosillo-Calle F, Woods J (September to October 2006) Renewable Energy World 130Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Verloop J (2004) Insight in innovation. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Christensen CM (1997) The innovator’s dilemna. Harvard Business School Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Foster RN (1986) Innovation—the attacker’s advantage. MacMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Boer FP (2005) Appl Catal A 280:3Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Chesbrough H (2003) Open innovation: the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Harvard Business School Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Huston L, Sakkab N (2005) Harvard Bus Rev 84:58Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Dearing A (2007) Science 315:344Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TOTAL PetrochemicalsBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Laboratoire Catalyse and SpectrochimieENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRSCaen CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations