Platinum Monolayer Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts
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We describe a new class of electrocatalysts for the O2 reduction, and H2 and methanol oxidation reactions, consisting of a monolayer of Pt deposited on a metal or alloy carbon-supported nanoparticles. These electrocatalysts show up to a 20-fold increase in Pt mass activity compared with conventional all-Pt electrocatalysts. The origin of their increased activity was identified through a combination of experimental methods, employing electrochemical and surface science techniques, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. The long-term tests in fuel cells demonstrated excellent stability of the anode and good stability of the cathode electrocatalysts. We also describe the stabilization of Pt electrocatalysts against dissolution under potential cycling regimes effected by a submonolayer of Au clusters deposited on Pt surfaces. These new electrocatalysts promise to alleviate some of the major problems of existing fuel cell technology.
KeywordsHydrogen oxidation CO oxidation Oxygen reduction Platinum monolayer Fuel cells Electrocatalysis Density functional theory
This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Divisions of Chemical and Material Sciences, under the Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Work at UW-Madison was supported by DOE-BES, Chemical Sciences Office, and by S. C. Johnson through a fellowship to AUN. Supercomputing time at NERSC, PNNL, and ORNL resources is gratefully acknowledged.
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