Advertisement

Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 126, Issue 1, pp 139–159 | Cite as

A Non-dimensional Analysis of Permeability Loss in Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB)

  • Umarat Santisukkasaem
  • Diganta Bhusan Das
Article
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is a treatment wall filled with ZVI as a reactive material that is installed perpendicular to the groundwater flow in the subsurface. To aid design of these PRBs, a non-dimensional analysis of the permeability reduction has been carried out in this work where the dimensionless equation has been identified to correlate different variables. Additionally, the change in physical features of ZVI PRB has been identified using the inspection system of X-ray microcomputer tomography and it has shown that the particle size is expanding, thus reducing the permeability. The change in chemical composition that impacts the surface reactivity has been confirmed using X-ray diffraction, and the corroded products of maghemite and magnetite have been identified. Flow experiments have been conducted to observe and measure the changes in permeability, where the pressure at various points of the experimental rigs has been measured for the calculation of permeability values. The reduction in permeability could be observed from both small- and large-scale experiments. For example, the flow experiments indicated that the permeability value has been significantly reduced for coarse particle, e.g. in small-scale experiment, it reduced from 7.04E−8 to 3.09E−9 cm2. It can also be seen that the permeability is decreased by 95.6% for small scale (coarse particle) and by 79.5% for large scale.

Keywords

Non-dimensional analysis Zero-valent iron Permeable reactive barrier Iron corrosion Permeability reduction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Tony Eyre, Dave Smith, Robert Bentham, Dr Sandie Dann and Dr Jorgelina Farias for their experimental support and Connelly-GPM, Inc. for zero-valent iron materials support. This study was carried out with the funds from Ministry of Science and Technology of Thailand and Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, UK.

References

  1. Abidoye, L., Das, D.: Scale dependent dynamic capillary pressure effect for two-phase flow in porous media. Adv. Water Resour. 74, 212–230 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2014.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Battelle, : Performance Evaluation of a Pilot Scale Permeable reactive barrier at former Naval Air Station Moffett Field, Mountain View, California, p. 191. Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme (1998)Google Scholar
  3. Battelle 2000. Design guidance for application of permeable reactive barriers for groundwater remediation, Tyndall Air Force Base: Florida; 240. https://www.clu-in.org/conf/itrc/prbll_061506/prb-2.pdf Accessed May 2012
  4. Bergendahl, J., Grasso, D.: Mechanistic basis for particle detachment from granular media. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37(10), 2317–2322 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es0209316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandrappa, R., Das, D.: Sustainable Water Engineering: Theory and Practice, p. 402. Wiley International, Singapore (2014)Google Scholar
  6. Cundy, A., Hopkinson, L., Whitby, R.: Use of iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation: a review. Sci. Total Environ. 400, 42–51 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Das, D.: Hydrodynamic modelling for groundwater flow through permeable reactive barriers. Hydrol. Process. 16, 3393–3418 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Furukawa, Y., Kim, J., Watkins, J., Wilkin, R.: Formation of ferrihydrite and associated iron corrosion products in permeable reactive barriers of zero-valent iron. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36(24), 5469–5475 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es025533h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Henderson, A., Demond, A.: Long-term performance of zero-valent iron permeable reactive barriers: a critical review. Environ. Eng. Sci. 24, 401–423 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2006.0071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henderson, A.D., Demon, A.H.: Permeability of iron sulphide (FeS)-based materials for groundwater remediation. Water Res. 47, 1267–1276 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.11.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holdich, R.: Fundamentals of Particle Technology, p. 173. Midland Information Technology and Publishing, Loughborough (2002)Google Scholar
  12. Huang, G., Liu, F., Yang, Y., Deng, W., Li, S., Huang, Y., Kong, X.: Removal of ammonium-nitrogen from groundwater using a fully passive permeable reactive barrier with oxygen-releasing compound and clinoptilolite. J. Environ. Manag. 154, 1–7 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jeen, S.-W., Amos, R., Blowes, D.: Modeling gas formation and mineral precipitation in a granular iron column. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 6742–6749 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es300299r CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeen, S.-W., Gillham, R., Blowes, D.: Effects of carbonate precipitates on long-term performance of granular iron for reductive dechlorination of TCE. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40(20), 6432–6437 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es0608747 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Junyapoon, S.: Use of zero-valent iron for wastewater treatment. KMITL Sci. Tech. J. 5(3), 587–595 (2005)Google Scholar
  16. Kamolpornwijit, W., Liang, L., West, O., Moline, R., Sullivan, A.: Preferential flow path development and its influence on long-term PRB performance: column study. J. Contam. Hydrol. 66(3–4), 161–178 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(03)00031-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaveh-Baghbaderani, B., Nassehi, V., Kulkarni, A.: Three dimensional modelling of interaction between surface and Darcy flow regimes through soils. Water Sci. Technol. 60(7), 1911–1918 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.577 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim, S., Kamala-Kannan, S., Lee, K.-J., Park, Y.-J., Shea, P., Lee, W.-H., Kim, H.-M., Oh, B.-T.: Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by a zeolite-nanoscale zero-valent iron composite. Chem. Eng. J. 217, 54–60 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.11.097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kohn, T., Livi, K., Roberts, A., Vikesland, P.: Longevity of granular iron in groundwater treatment processes: corrosion product development. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 2867–2879 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es048851k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li, L., Benson, C., Lawson, E.: Impact of mineral fouling on hydraulic behavior of permeable reactive barriers. Ground Water 43(4), 582–596 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.0042.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li, Z.-J., Wang, L., Yuan, L.-Y., Xiao, C.-L., Mei, L., Zheng, L.-R., Zhang, J., Yang, J.-H., Zhao, Y.-L., Zhu, Z.-T., Chai, Z.-F., Shi, W.-Q.: Efficient removal of uranium from aqueous solution by zero-valent iron nanoparticle and its graphene composite. J. Hazard. Mater. 290, 26–33 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luo, H., Jin, S., Fallgren, P., Colberg, P., Johnson, P.: Prevention of iron passivation and enhancement of nitrate reduction by electron supplementation. Chem. Eng. J. 160(1), 185–189 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2006.04.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ma, R., Cai, C., Li, Z., Wang, J., Xiao, T., Peng, G., Yang, W.: Evaluation of soil aggregate microstructure and stability under wetting and drying cycles in two Ultisols using synchrotron-based X-ray microcomputed tomography. Soil Tillage Res. 149, 1–11 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2014.12.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mackenzie, P., Horney, D., Sivavec, T.: Mineral precipitation and porosity losses in granular iron columns. J. Hazard. Mater. 68(1), 1–17 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(99)00029-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Phillips, D., Van Nooten, T., Bastiaens, L., Russell, M., Dickson, K., Plant, S., Ahad, J., Newton, T., Elliot, T., Kalin, R.: Ten year performance evaluation of a field-scale zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier installed to remediate trichloroethene contaminated groundwater. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44(10), 3861–3869 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es902737t CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Powell R, Blowes D, Gillham R, Schultz D, Sivavee T, Puls R, Vogan J, Powell P, Landis R. 1998. Permeable reactive barrier technologies for contaminant remediation. U.S. EPA Remedial Technology Fact Sheet. EPA 600/R-98/125. https://clu-in.org/download/rtdf/prb/reactbar.pdf. Accessed April 2012
  27. Reardon, E.: Anaerobic corrosion of granular iron: measurement and interpretation of hydrogen evolution rates. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29, 2936–2945 (1995).  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00012a008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ruhl, A., Franz, G., Gernert, U., Jekel, M.: Corrosion product and precipitate distribution in two-component Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers. Chem. Eng. J. 239, 26–32 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.11.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ruhl, A., Jekel, M.: Impacts of Fe(0) grain sizes and grain size distributions in permeable reactive barriers. Chem. Eng. J. 213, 245–250 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.10.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ruhl, A., Kotre, C., Gernert, U., Jekel, M.: Identification, quantification and localization of secondary minerals in mixed Fe0 fixed bed reactors. Chem. Eng. J. 178, 210–216 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.06.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruhl, A., Unal, N., Jekel, M.: Combination of Fe(0) with additional reactive materials in fixed bed reactors for TCE removal. Chem. Eng. J. 222, 180–185 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.02.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thiruvenkatachari, R., Vigneswaran, S., Naidu, R.: Permeable reactive barrier for groundwater remediation. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 14, 145–156 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2007.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wilkin, R., Puls, R., Sewell, G.: Long-term performance of permeable reactive barriers using zero-valent iron: geochemical and microbiological effects. Ground Water 41(4), 493–503 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2003.tb02383.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yin, W., Wu, J., Huang, W., Wei, C.: Enhanced nitrobenzene removal and column longevity by coupled abiotic and biotic processes in zero-valent iron column. Chem. Eng. J. 259, 417–423 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.08.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang, Y., Gillham, R.: Effects of gas generation and precipitates on performance of Fe0 PRBs. Groundwater 43, 113–121 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.tb02290.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK

Personalised recommendations