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Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 61–84 | Cite as

Toward Cleaner Geothermal Energy Utilization: Capturing and Sequestering CO\(_2\) and H\(_2\)S Emissions from Geothermal Power Plants

  • Edda S. P. AradóttirEmail author
  • Ingvi Gunnarsson
  • Bergur Sigfússon
  • Gunnar Gunnarsson
  • Bjarni M. Júliusson
  • Einar Gunnlaugsson
  • Hólmfrídur Sigurdardóttir
  • Magnús Th. Arnarson
  • Eric Sonnenthal
Article

Abstract

Field scale reactive transport models of CO\(_2\) and H\(_2\)S mineral sequestration in basalts were developed with a focus on Reykjavík Energy’s ongoing CarbFix and SulFix sour gas re-injection tests at Hellisheidi geothermal power plant, SW-Iceland. Field data, such as drill cuttings and a calcite cap-rock overlying the high-temperature geothermal reservoir, suggest that mineral CO\(_2\) and H\(_2\)S sequestration already plays an important role within Hellisheidi geothermal system. The data indicate CO\(_2\) sequestration to be most intensive from 550–800-m depth below surface, while H\(_2\)S sequestration is most intensive below 800-m depth. Injecting and precipitating CO\(_2\) and H\(_2\)S into nearby formations with the objective of imitating and accelerating natural sequestration processes should therefore be considered as an environmentally benign process. Reactive transport simulations predict rapid and efficient mineralization of both CO\(_2\) and H\(_2\)S into thermodynamically stable minerals, with calcite, magnesite, and pyrrhotite being the favored carbonate and sulfide minerals to form. At intermediate depths and low temperatures (25–90 \(^\circ \)C), calcite is the main CO\(_2\) sequestering carbonate predicted to form, while magnesite is the only carbonate predicted to form at high temperatures (\(>\)250 \(^\circ \)C). Despite only being indicative, it is concluded from this study that the capture and sequestration of CO\(_2\) and H\(_2\)S from geothermal power plants are a viable option for reducing their gas emissions and that basalts may comprise ideal geological CO\(_2\) and H\(_2\)S storage formations.

Keywords

Reactive transport modeling CO\(_2\) sequestration H\(_2\)S sequestration CO\(_2\)–H\(_2\)S–water–basalt interaction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Einar Örn Thrastarson and Trausti Kristinsson for their never-ending contribution to CarbFix and SulFix. We also thank Karsten Pruess, Nic Spycher, and Stefan Finsterle at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Andri Arnaldsson at Vatnaskil Consulting Engineers, Andri Stefánsson, Helgi A. Alfredsson, Sigurdur R. Gíslason, and Snorri Gudbrandsson at the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, Martin Stute and Juerg M. Matter at Columbia University, Eric H. Oelkers at the University in Toulouse, and Gudni Axelsson, Gunnlaugur Einarsson and Thráinn Fridriksson at Iceland GeoSurvey. This work was funded by Reykjavík Energy, the 7th Framework Programme of the EC (project no. 283148) and GEORG Geothermal Research Group (project no. 09-02-001).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edda S. P. Aradóttir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ingvi Gunnarsson
    • 1
  • Bergur Sigfússon
    • 2
  • Gunnar Gunnarsson
    • 1
  • Bjarni M. Júliusson
    • 1
  • Einar Gunnlaugsson
    • 1
  • Hólmfrídur Sigurdardóttir
    • 1
  • Magnús Th. Arnarson
    • 3
  • Eric Sonnenthal
    • 4
  1. 1.Reykjavík EnergyReykjavíkIceland
  2. 2.European CommissionInstitute for Energy and Transport PettenNetherlands
  3. 3.Mannvit EngineeringReykjavíkIceland
  4. 4.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA

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