Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 589–613 | Cite as

Identification of the Liquid and Vapour Transport Parameters of an Ecological Building Material in Its Early Stages

  • A. Zaknoune
  • P. GlouannecEmail author
  • P. Salagnac


To fulfil the requirements of the new environmental standards in the building sector, increased use of materials containing vegetable particles (hemp) is expected. The manufacturing process of these materials has not yet reached the industrial stage which requires control of the drying process. The objective of this work is to study the various mechanisms of heat and mass transfers occurring during the drying of lime–hemp materials. A macroscopic model has been developed and solved numerically. In order to obtain the moisture transport coefficients, an optimization algorithm was used, allowing the estimation of parameter values by minimising an error criterion between simulated and experimental observations.


Heat and mass transfer Porous media Hemp material Inverse techniques Drying kinetics 

List of Symbols



Water activity


Specific heat at constant pressure (J kg\(^{-1}\) K\(^{-1}\))


Diffusion coefficient (kg m\(^{-1}\) s\(^{-1}\))


Thickness (cm)


Mass flux (kg m\(^{-2}\) s\(^{-1}\))


Relative humidity (%)


Convection heat transfer coefficient (W m\(^{-2}\) K\(^{-1}\))


Radiation heat transfer coefficient (W m\(^{-2}\) K\(^{-1}\))


Volumetric rate of the change phase (kg m\(^{-3}\) s\(^{-1}\))


Intrinsic permeability (m\(^{2}\))


Mass transfer coefficient (m s\(^{-1}\))


Relative permeability to the vapour phase


Relative permeability to the liquid phase


Mass (kg)


Molar mass (kg mol\(^{-1}\))


Pressure (Pa)


Capillary pressure (Pa)

\(P_{\mathrm{v}\infty }\)

Partial atmospheric pressure (Pa)


Saturation vapour pressure (Pa)


Perfect gas constant (J mol\(^{-1}\) K\(^{-1}\))


Temperature (\(^\circ \)C)


Time (s)


Velocity (m s\(^{-1}\))


Filtration velocity (m s\(^{-1}\))


Moisture content (dry basis) (kg kg\(^{-1}\))


Coordinate (m)

Greek Letters

\(\Delta H_\mathrm{v}\)

Latent vaporisation heat (J kg\(^{-1}\))

\(\varepsilon \)


\(\lambda ^{*}\)

Effective thermal conductivity (W m\(^{-1}\) K\(^{-1}\))

\(\mu \)

Tortuosity factor

\(\mu _\mathrm{l}\)

Water dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

\(\rho \)

Density (kg m\(^{-3}\))

Exponents and Subscripts




















Monolayer sorption













\(\infty \)

Equilibrium state



The authors want to thank the Brittany Regional Council, the General council of Morbihan and the National Research Agency of France (ANR) for their financial contributions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des MATériaux de Bretagne (LIMATB), Centre de RechercheUniversité de Bretagne SudLorient CedexFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur pour l’Environnement (LaSIE), Pôle Sciences et TechnologieUniversité de La RochelleLa Rochelle Cedex 1France

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