Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Water Vapor Adsorption in Porous Building Materials: Experimental Measurement and Theoretical Analysis

Abstract

An experimental and theoretical analysis of the water vapor adsorption in several types of porous building materials is presented. For the measurement of adsorption isotherms, a DVS-Advantage water sorption device is used. The experimental data is analyzed using theoretical formulas based on the BET, BSB, BDDT, and FHH isotherms, assuming a mono as well as multi-layer water vapor adsorption. The BSB equation is found to provide a good approximation for the relative humidities below 0.6–0.7, whereas the FHH equation shows a sufficient accuracy for the relative humidities above 0.4–0.5. Based on a combination of BSB and FHH isotherms, a semi-empirical formula is proposed that allows one to obtain a very accurate approximation of experimental data for all analyzed materials and all values of the relative humidity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

c :

BET constant (–)

C s :

Surface concentration (mol m−3)

\({C_{\rm s}^{{\rm sat}}}\) :

saturation surface concentration (mol m−3)

D :

Fractal dimension (–)

H a :

Molar heat of adsorption (J mol−1  K−1)

H c :

Molar heat of condensation/vaporization (J mol−1 K−1)

k :

Fitting parameter in BSB isotherm (–)

K :

Fitting parameter in FHH isotherm (–)

n :

Fitting parameter in BDDT isotherm (–)

R :

Universal gas constant (J mol−1 K−1)

σ :

Decay parameter of surface forces with distance (–)

T :

Absolute temperature (K)

θ :

Relative humidity (–)

References

  1. Adamson A.W.: Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 5th edn. Wiley, New York (1990)

  2. Brocken H.J.P.: Moisture transport in brick masonry: The gray area between bricks. Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (1998)

  3. Brunauer S.: The Adsorption of Gases and Vapors. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1943)

  4. Brunauer S., Emmet P.H., Teller W.E.: Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60, 309–319 (1938)

  5. Brunauer S., Deming L.S., Deming E.W., Teller E.: On a theory of the van der Waals adsorption of gases. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 1723–1732 (1940)

  6. Brunauer S., Skalny J., Bodor E.E.: Adsorption on Nonporous Solids. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 30, 546–552 (1969)

  7. Burnett, D., Garcia, A.R., Naderi, M., Acharya, M.: Vapour sorption properties of building materials using gravimetric sorption instrumentation—an overview. Application Note 104, Surface Measurement Systems (2009)

  8. Carmeliet J., Roals S.: Determination of the isothermal moisture transport properties of porous building materials. J. Therm. Envel. Build. Sci. 24, 183–210 (2001)

  9. Cerofolini G.F., Meda L.: Clustering and melting in multilayer equilibrium adsorption. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 202, 104–123 (1998)

  10. Černý R., Rovnaníková P.: Transport Processes in Concrete. Spon Press, London (2002)

  11. Everett D.H.: Adsorption hysteresis. In: Flood, E.A. (eds) The Solid Gas Interface, vol. 2, Chap. 36, Dekker, New York (1967)

  12. Frenkel J.: Kinetic Theory of Fluids. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1946)

  13. Garbalińska H., Kowalski S.J., Staszak M.: Moisture transfer between unsaturated cement mortar and ambient air. Transp. Porous Media 85, 79–96 (2010)

  14. Gregg S.J., Sing K.S.W.: Adsorption, Surface Area, Porosity, 2nd ed. Academic Press, London (1982)

  15. Halsey G.: Physical adsorption on non-uniform surfaces. J. Chem. Phys. 16, 931–937 (1948)

  16. Hansen K.K.: Sorption Isotherms—A Catalogue. Technical report 162/86, TU Denmark, Lyngby (1986)

  17. Häupl P., Fechner H.: Hygric material properties of porous building materials. J. Build. Phys. 26(3), 259–284 (2003)

  18. Hill T.L.: Thermodynamics of adsorption. Trans. Faraday Soc. 47, 376–380 (1951)

  19. Jiřičková M., Černý R.: Effect of hydrophilic admixtures on moisture and heat transport and storage parameters of mineral wool. Constr. Build. Mater. 20(6), 425–434 (2006)

  20. Kumaran M.K.: A~thermal and moisture property database for common building and insulation materials. ASHRAE Trans. 112, 1–13 (2006)

  21. Lozano A.L., Cherblanc F., Bénet J.C.: Water evaporation versus condensation in a hygroscopic soil. Transp. Porous Media 80, 209–222 (2009)

  22. Miniotaite, R.: Sorption processes and moisture deformations in building materials. In: Carmeliet, J., Hens, H.S.L.C., Vermeir, G. (eds.) Research in Building Physics, pp. 189–196. Swets and Zeitlinger, Lisse (2003)

  23. Pavlík Z., Michálek P., Pavlíková M., Kopecká I., Maxová I., Černý R.: Water and salt transport and storage properties of Mšené sandstone. Constr. Build. Mater. 22(8), 1736–1748 (2008)

  24. Peuhkuri, R.: Quantifying time dependent moisture storage and transport properties. In: Carmeliet, J., Hens, H.S.L.C., Vermeir, G. (eds.) Research in Building Physics, pp. 43–51. Swets and Zeitlinger, Lisse (2003)

  25. Pfeifer P., Cole W.M.: Fractals in surface science—scattering and thermodynamics of adsorbed films 2. New J. Chem. 14, 221–232 (1990)

  26. Pfeifer P., Wu Y.J., Cole M.W., Krim J.: Multilayer adsorption on a fractally rough surface. Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1997–2000 (1989)

  27. Philip J.R.: Kinetics of capillary condensation in wedge-shaped pores. J. Chem. Phys. 41, 911–916 (1964)

  28. Philip J.R.: Unitary approach to capillary condensation and adsorption. J. Chem. Phys. 66, 5069–5075 (1977)

  29. Richards, R.F., Burch, D.M., Thomas, W.C.: Water vapor sorption measurements of common building materials. ASHRAE Transactions 98(1) (1992)

  30. Shahraeeni E., Or D.: Pore scale analysis of evaporation and condensation dynamics in porous media. Langmuir 26(17), 13924–13936 (2010)

  31. Timmermann E.O.: Multilayer sorption parameters: BET or GAB values?. Colloid Surf. A 220, 235–260 (2003)

  32. Tuller M., Or D., Dudley L.M.: Adsorption and capillary condensation in porous media: liquid retention and interfacial configurations in angular pores. Water Resour. Res. 35, 1949–1964 (1999)

  33. Vejmelková E., Padevět P., Černý R.: Effect of cracks on hygric and thermal characteristics of concrete. Bauphysik 30, 438–444 (2008)

  34. Vejmelková E., Keppert M., Grzeszczyk S., Skaliński B., Černý R.: Properties of self-compacting concrete mixtures containing metakaolin and blast furnace slag. Constr. Build. Mater. 25, 1325–1331 (2011)

  35. Xi Y., Bažant Z.P., Jennings H.M.: Moisture diffusion in cementitious materials. Adv. Cem. Based Mater 1, 248–257 (1994)

  36. Zuda L., Bayer P., Rovnaník P., Černý R.: Mechanical and hydric properties of alkali-activated aluminosilicate composite with electrical porcelain aggregates. Cem. Concr. Comp. 30, 266–273 (2008)

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Robert Černý.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pavlík, Z., Žumár, J., Medved, I. et al. Water Vapor Adsorption in Porous Building Materials: Experimental Measurement and Theoretical Analysis. Transp Porous Med 91, 939–954 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-011-9884-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Water vapor adsorption
  • Porous building materials
  • Theoretical adsorption isotherms
  • Experimental measurements