Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Petrophysical and Capillary Properties of Compacted Salt

Abstract

This paper reports experimental results that demonstrate petrophysical and capillary characteristics of compacted salt. The measured data include porosity, gas permeability, pore size distribution, specific surface area, and gas-brine breakthrough and capillary pressure. Salt samples employed in the experiments were prepared by compacting sodium chloride granulates at high stresses for several hours. They represent an intermediate consolidation stage of crushed salt under in-situ conditions. The porosity and permeability of compacted salt showed similar trends to those expected in backfilled regions of waste repositories excavated in salt rock. The correlation between the measured porosity and permeability seems to be independent of the compaction parameters for the range examined in this study. The correlation also shows a different behaviour from that of rock salt. The data of all petrophysical properties show that the pore structure of compacted salt can be better characterized by fracture permeability models rather than capillary bundle ones. Simple creep tests, conducted on the fully-brine-saturated compacted salt samples, yielded similar strain rates to those obtained by a steady-state mechanical model developed from the tests on fully brine-saturated granular salt. A modified procedure is proposed for the evaluation of restored-state capillary pressure data influenced by the material creep. The characteristic parameters for the capillary behaviour of compacted salt are determined by matching the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten models with the measured data. The Leverett functions determined with different methods agree well.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alkan, H., Cinar, Y. and Pusch, G.: 2003, Visualization and acoustic detection of microcrack development in rock salt, in: Proceedings of the Spring Meeting of Solution Mining Research Institute, April 27–30, Houston, TX.

  2. Aufricht, W. R. and Howard, K. C.: 1961, Salt Characteristics as they affect storage of hydrocarbons, J. of Pet. Tech., August, 733–738.

  3. G.I. Barenblatt J.C. Zheltov N. Kochina (1960) ArticleTitleBasic concepts in the theory of seepage of homogeneous liquids in fissured rocks Prikl. Mat. Mekh. 24 IssueID5 852–864

  4. Borgmeier, M.: 1992, Investigation of stress-dependent permeability behaviour of rock salt under the consideration of pore space loading, PhD Dissertation, TU Clausthal, (in German).

  5. N.S. Brodsky D.H. Zeuch D.J. Holcomb (1995) Consolidation and permeability of crushed WIPP salt in hydrostatic and triaxial compression Daemen Schults (Eds) Rock Mechanics Balkema Rotterdam 497–502

  6. Brodsky, N. S., Hansen, F. D. and Pfeifle, W. P.: 1996, Properties of dynamically compacted salt, in: Proceedings of the 4th Conference on the Mech. Behavior of Salt, The Penn State U., June 17–18, pp. 303–316.

  7. Brooks, R. H. and Corey, A. T.: 1964, Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrol. Pap. 3, Dep. of Civil Eng., Colorado State U., Fort Collins.

  8. W.A. Bruce H.J. Welge (1947) ArticleTitleRestored state method for determination of oil in place and connate water Oil and Gas J. 46 223

  9. Callahan, G. D., Mellegard, K. D. and Hansen, F. D.: 1998, Constitutive behaviour of reconsolidating crushed salt, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 35 (4–5).

  10. Case, J. B., Kelsall, P. C. and Withiam, J. L.: 1987, Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation, in: Proceedings of the 28th U.S. Symp on Rock Mechanics, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 189–196.

  11. Chumbe, D., Lloret, A. and Alonso, E.: 1996, Creep and permeability tests on compacted granular salt, in: Proceedings of the 4th Conference on the Mech. Behavior of Salt, The Penn State U., June 17–18, pp. 331–339.

  12. Cinar, Y., Mueller, W., Pusch, G. and Reitenbach, V.: 1998, Gas migration in salt, Part II: Experimental work, in: Proceedings of the EC Pegasus Project Meeting, Naantali, Finland, May 25–26.

  13. Cinar, Y.: 2000, Experimental investigation of pore structure and fluid flow in artificially compacted salt granulates, PhD Dissertation, TU Clausthal; ISBN: 3-89720-389-8.

  14. Cinar, Y., Pusch, G. and Reitenbach, V.: 2001, Analysis of the pore structure of compacted salt material based on the measurement of hydraulic properties, in: Proceedings of the Spring Meeting of Solution Mining Research Inst., Orlando, FL, April 22–25.

  15. Cinar, Y., Pusch, G., Reitenbach, V. and Mueller, W.: 2002, Hydraulic characterization of compacted salt as backfill material, in: Proceedings of the 6th Int. Workshop on Design and Construction of Final Repositories Backfilling in Radioactive Waste Disposal, ONDRAF/NIRAS, Brussels, March 11–13.

  16. Ph. Cosenza M. Ghoreychi B. Bazargan-Sabet G. Marsily Particlede (1999) ArticleTitleIn situ rock salt permeability measurement for long-term safety assessment of storage Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 36 509–526 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0148-9062(99)00017-0

  17. Davidson, B. and Dusseault, M.: 1996, Granular halite backfill as a structural and disposal medium, in: Proceedings of the 4th Conference on the Mech. Behavior of Salt, The Penn State U., June 17–18.

  18. F.A.L. Dullien (1992) Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure EditionNumber2 Academic Press San Diego

  19. Ehgartner, B. and Tidwell, V.: 2000, Multiphase flow and cavern abandonment in salt, in: Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of Solution Mining Research Inst., San Antonio, TX, October 15–18.

  20. Heid, J. G., McMahon, J. J., Nielsen, R. F. and Yuster, S. T.: 1950, Study of the permeability of rocks to homogeneous fluids, Drilling and Production Practices, API, 230–246.

  21. Hein, H. J.: 1991, A constitutive model for definition of thermomechanical behaviour of salt granulates, PhD Dissertation, Reinisch-Westflischen Technischen Hoch-schule, Aachen, (in German).

  22. Jones F. O. and Owens, W. W.: 1980, A laboratory study of low permeability gas sands, J. Petroleum Tech., September 1631–1640

  23. Klinkenberg, L. J.: 1941, The permeability of porous media to liquids and gases, Drilling Production Practices, API, 200.

  24. K. Langaas (1998) ArticleTitleA criterion for ordering individuals in a composite core J. Petroleum Sci. Eng. 19 21–32 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0920-4105(97)00032-6

  25. Lewerett, M. C.: 1941, Capillary behaviour in porous media, Petroleum Transactions, AIME 192, 152.

  26. Milnes, A. G., Buser, M. and Wild, W.: 1980, Review of concepts for the disposal of radioactive wastes, Zeitschrift der Deutchen Geologischen Gesellschaft 131 (Teil 2), Hannover.

  27. Mueller-Lyda, I. and Fein, E.: 1999, Relationship between permeability and porosity of crushed salt, Presented at the Workshop on Properties of Crushed Salt as Backfill Material in Rock Salt, BfS, Salzgitter, May 18–19.

  28. Niou, S. and Deal, D. E.: 1989, Migration of brine and nitrogen in creeping salt, Waste Management Symposium, Vol. 1, Tucson, AZ, February 26–March 2, 329–335.

  29. S. Olivella J. Carrera A. Gens E.E. Alonso (1996) ArticleTitlePorosity variations in saline media caused by temperature gradients coupled to multiphase flow and dissolution/precipitation Transport Porous Media 25 1–25 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00141260

  30. S. Olivella A. Gens (2002) ArticleTitleA constitutive model for crushed salt Int. J. Num. Anal. Methods Geomech. 26 719–746 Occurrence Handle10.1002/nag.220

  31. Ostensen, R. W.: 1983, Microcrack permeability in tight gas sandstones, Soc. Pet. Eng. J. 919.

  32. C. Peach (1991) Influence of deformation on the fluid transport properties of salt rocks Utrech University, Geologica Ultraiectina Netherlands

  33. Purcell, W. R.: 1949, Capillary pressures-their measurement using mercury and the calculation of permeability therefrom, Petroleum Transactions, AIME 39.

  34. Pusch, G. and Alkan, H.: 2002, Gas permeation models related to dilatancy development under deviatoric stress conditions, in: Proceedings of the Fall Meeting of Solution Mining Research Institute, Bad Ischl, Austria, October 7–9.

  35. Randolph, D. J., Soeder, D. J. and Chowdiah, P.: 1984, Porosity and permeability of tight sand, SPE paper 12836, presented at the SPE/DOE/GRI Unconventional Gas Recovery Symp., Pittsburgh.

  36. Spiers, C. J., Peach, C. J., Brzesowsky, R. H., Schutjens, P. M. T. M., Liezenberg, J. L. and Zwart, H. J.: 1988, Long-term rheological and transport properties of dry and wet salt rocks, Technical Report, EUR 11848, Nuclear Sci. and Tech., Office for Official Pub. Of the EC, Lux., pp. 161.

  37. Stormont, J. C.: 1990 Gas permeability changes in rock salt during deformation, PhD Dissertation, The University of Arizona.

  38. J.C. Stormont (1997) ArticleTitleIn situ gas permeability measurements to delineate damage in rock salt Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 34 IssueID7 1055–1064 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0148-9062(97)00304-5

  39. Sampath, K. and Keighin, C. W.: 1982, Factors affecting gas slippage in tight sandstones of Cretaceous age in the Uinta Basin, J. of Petroelum Tech., Nov, 2715.

  40. Thomas, L. K., Katz, D. L. and Tek, M. R.: 1968, Threshold pressure phenomena in porous media, Soc. Pet. Eng. J., June, 174–184.

  41. M.Th. Genuchten ParticleVan (1980) ArticleTitleA closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44 892–898 Occurrence Handle10.2136/sssaj1980.03615995004400050002x

  42. J.E. Warren P.J. Root (1963) ArticleTitleThe behavior of naturally-fractured reservoirs J. Soc. Petroleum Eng. 3 245–255

  43. D.H. Zeuch D.J. Holcomb (1984) ArticleTitleAnalysis of creep consolidation of crushed rock salt using a plastic flow model for isostatic hot-pressing, EOS Trans Am. Geophys. Union 65 1108

  44. D.H. Zeuch (1990) ArticleTitleIsostatic hot-pressing mechanism maps for pure and natural sodium chloride-Application to nuclear waste isolation in bedded and domal salt formations Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 27 IssueID6 505–524 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0148-9062(90)91002-O

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Y. Cinar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cinar, Y., Pusch, G. & Reitenbach, V. Petrophysical and Capillary Properties of Compacted Salt. Transp Porous Med 64, 199–228 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-005-2848-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • porosity
  • permeability
  • gas breakthrough
  • capillary pressure
  • mercury injection
  • restored state method
  • compacted salt