We formulate conservation laws governing steam and nitrogen injection in a one-dimensional porous medium containing water. Compressibility, heat conductivity and capillarity are neglected. We study the condensation front and shock waves arising in the flow. We find that there are four possible types of solutions for the initial and boundary conditions of interest. We describe a simple construction in the temperature saturation plane that determines the complete solution for the given conditions. Applications of the theory developed here are in clean up of soil contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids. We show that a substantial cold gaseous zone develops in all solutions of practical interest, thus counteracting downward migration of the pollutant.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
W. J. Beek M. K. Mutzall (1975) Transport Phenomena Wiley New York
Betz, C., Farbar, A. and Schmidt, R.: 1998, Removing volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from the unsaturated zone by injection of a steam air mixture, in: Contaminated Soil, Thomas Telford, London, pp. 575–584
R. B. Bird W. E. Stewart E. N. Lightfoot (1960) Transport Phenomena Wiley New York
J. Bruining C. J. Duijn (2000) ArticleTitleUniqueness conditions in a hyperbolic model for oil recovery by steamdrive Comput. Geosci. 4 65–98 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1011555715400
J. Bruining D. Marchesin C. J. Duijn (2004) ArticleTitleSteam injection into water-saturated porous rock Comput. Appl. Math. 22 IssueID3 359–395
Buckley S.E. and Leverett M.C. (1941). Mechanism of fluid displacement in sands. Trans. AIME, pp. 107–116
Coats K.H. (1980). In-situ combustion model. Soc. Pet. Engng. J., Dec, 533–554
Coats, K. H., Thomas, L. K. and Pierson, R. G.: 1998, Compositional and black oil simulation, SPE Reservoir Eval. Engng., August, pp. 372–379 (see also Abdalla, A. and Coats, K. H.: 1971, Three-phase, experimental and numerical simulation study of the steam flood process, 46th Annual Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, to be held in New Orleans, LA, Oct. 3–6, SPE 3600).
L. P. Dake (1978) Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering Elsevier Amsterdam
F. A. L. Dullien (1979) Porous Media; Fluid Transport and Pore Structure Academic Press New York
R. R. G. G. Godderij J. Bruining J. Molenaar (1999) ArticleTitleA fast 3D interface simulator for steamdrives SPEJ 4 IssueID4 400–408
C. K. Ho K. S. Udell (1992) ArticleTitleAn experimental investigation of air venting of volatile liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from homogeneous and heterogeneous media J. Contam. Hydrol. 11 291–316
J. R. Hunt N. Sitar K. S. Udell (1988) ArticleTitleNon-aqueous phase liquid transport and clean up: Part I, Analysis of mechanisms Water Resour. Res. 24 IssueID8 1247–1258
J. R. Hunt N. Sitar K. S. Udell (1988) ArticleTitleNon-aqueous phase liquid transport and clean up: Part II, Experimental studies Water Resour. Res. 24 IssueID8 1259–1269
S. F. Kaslusky K. S. Udell (2002) ArticleTitleA theoretical model of air and steam co-injection to prevent the downward migration of the DNAPL’s during steam enhanced extraction J. Contam. Hydrol. 55 213–232
Mandl G. and Volek C.W. (1969). Heat and mass transport in steamdrive processes. Soc. Pet. Engng. J. 57–79.
D. Marchesin B. Plohr (2001) ArticleTitleWave structure in WAG recovery SPEJ 6 IssueID2 209–219
C. M. Marle (1982) ArticleTitleOn macroscopic equations governing multiphase flow with diffusion and chemical reactions in porous media Int. J. Engng. Sci. 20 IssueID5 643–662 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0020-7225(82)90118-5
O. Oleinik (1957) ArticleTitleOn the uniqueness of the generalized solution of the Cauchy problem for a non-linear system of equations occuring in mechanics Uspekhi Mat. Nauk. 12 169–176
G. A. Pope (1980) ArticleTitleThe application of fractional flow theory to enhanced oil recovery Soc. Pet. Engng. J. 20 191–205
K. Rathfelder W.W. -G Yeh D. Mackay (1991) ArticleTitleMathematical simulation of soil vapor extraction systems: model development and numerical examples J. Contam. Hydrol. 8 263–297
R. Schmidt J. Gudbjerg T. O. Sonnenborg K. H. Jensen (2002) ArticleTitleRemoval of NAPL’s from the unsaturated zone using steam: prevention of downsward migration by injecting mixtures of steam and air J. Contam. Hydrol. 55 233–260
R. Schmidt C. Betz A. Faerber (1998) ArticleTitleLNAPL and DNAPL behaviour during steam injection into the unsaturated zone Int. Assoc. Hydrol. Sci. Publ. 250 11–117
Shutler, N. D.: 1972, A one dimensional analytical technique for predicting oil recovery by steam flooding, Soc. Pet. Engng. J., 489–498
Tortike, W. S. and Farouq ali, S. M.: 1989, Saturated-steam-property functional correlations for fully implicit reservoir simulation, SPERE, November, 471–474.
J. S. Wingard F. M. Orr (1994) ArticleTitleAn analytical solution for steam/oil/water displacements SPE Adv Technol. Ser. 2 167–176
G. B. Witham (1974) Linear and Nonlinear Waves Wiley New York
Yortsos Y.C. (1984). Distribution of fluid phases within the steam zone in steam injection processes. Soc. Pet. Engng. J., 458–466
About this article
Cite this article
Bruining, J., Marchesin, D. Analysis of Nitrogen and Steam Injection in a Porous Medium with Water. Transp Porous Med 62, 251–281 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-005-1733-2
- steam injection
- thermal recovery
- multiphase flow
- hyperbolic systems