Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Quasi-partitioned scheduling: optimality and adaptation in multiprocessor real-time systems

Abstract

We describe a new algorithm, called quasi-partitioned scheduling (QPS), capable of scheduling any feasible system composed of independent implicit-deadline sporadic tasks on identical processors. QPS partitions the system tasks into subsets, each of which is either scheduled by EDF on a single processor or by a set of servers on two or more processors. More precisely, QPS uses an efficient scheme to switch between partitioned EDF and global-like scheduling rules in response to system load variation, providing dynamic adaptation in the system. Extensive simulation compares QPS favorably against related work, showing that it has very low preemption and migration overheads.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  1. Andersson B, Bletsas K (2008) Sporadic multiprocessor scheduling with few preemptions. In: Euromicro conference on real-time systems (ECRTS), pp 243–252. doi:10.1109/ECRTS.2008.9

  2. Andersson B, Tovar E (2006) Multiprocessor scheduling with few preemptions. In: IEEE embedded and real-time computing systems and applications (RTCSA), pp 322–334

  3. Baruah SK, Mok AK, Rosier LE (1990) Preemptively scheduling hard-real-time sporadic tasks on one processor. In: IEEE real-time systems symposium (RTSS), pp 182–190

  4. Baruah SK, Cohen NK, Plaxton CG, Varvel DA (1996) Proportionate progress: a notion of fairness in resource allocation. Algorithmica 15(6):600–625

  5. Bastoni A, Brandenburg BB, Anderson JH (2011) Is semi-partitioned scheduling practical? In: Proceedings of 23rd euromicro conference real-time systems, pp 125–135

  6. Bletsas K, Andersson B (2009) Notional processors: an approach for multiprocessor scheduling. In: IEEE real-time and embedded technology and applications symposium (RTAS), pp 3–12. doi:10.1109/RTAS.2009.25

  7. Bletsas K, Andersson B (2011) Preemption-light multiprocessor scheduling of sporadic tasks with high utilisation bound. Real-Time Syst 47(4):319–355

  8. Burns A, Davis R, Wang P, Zhang F (2011) Partitioned EDF scheduling for multiprocessors using a C=D scheme. Real-Time Syst 48(1):3–33

  9. Cho H, Ravindran B, Jensen ED (2006) An optimal real-time scheduling algorithm for multiprocessors. In: IEEE real-time systems symposium (RTSS), pp 101–110

  10. Compagnin D, Mezzetti E, Vardanega T (2014) Putting run into practice: implementation and evaluation. In: Euromicro conference on real-time system, pp 75–84

  11. Easwaran A, Shin I, Lee I (2009) Optimal virtual cluster-based multiprocessor scheduling. Real-Time Syst 43(1):25–59

  12. Emberson P, Stafford R, Davis RI (2010) Techniques for the synthesis of multiprocessor tasksets. In: Workshop on analysis tools and methodologies for embedded and real-time systems (WATERS), pp 6–11

  13. Funaoka K, Kato S, Yamasaki N (2008) Work-conserving optimal real-time scheduling on multiprocessors. In: Euromicro conference on real-time systems (ECRTS), pp 13–22

  14. Funk S (2010) LRE-TL: an optimal multiprocessor algorithm for sporadic task sets with unconstrained deadlines. Real-Time Syst 46(3):332–359

  15. Kato S, Yamasaki N, Ishikawa Y (2009) Semi-partitioned scheduling of sporadic task systems on multiprocessors. In: Proceedings of 21st Euromicro conference on real-time systems (ECRTS), pp 249–258

  16. Koren G, Amir A, Dar E (1998) The power of migration in multi-processor scheduling of real-time systems. In: ACM-SIAM symposium on discrete algorithms (SODA), pp 226–235

  17. Levin G, Funk S, Sadowski C, Pye I, Brandt S (2010) DP-FAIR: a simple model for understanding optimal multiprocessor scheduling. In: Euromicro conference on real-time systems (ECRTS), pp 3–13

  18. Massa E, Lima G, Regnier P, Levin G, Brandt S (2014) Optimal and adaptive multiprocessor real-time scheduling: the quasi-partitioning approach. In: Euromicro conference on real-time system, pp 291–300

  19. McNaughton R (1959) Scheduling with deadlines and loss functions. Manag Sci 6(1):1–12

  20. Nelissen G (2013) Private communication

  21. Nelissen G, Berten V, Nelis V, Goossens J, Milojevic D (2012) U-edf: an unfair but optimal multiprocessor scheduling algorithm for sporadic tasks. In: 24th Euromicro conference on real-time systems. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, pp 13–23. doi:10.1109/ECRTS.2012.36

  22. Regnier P, Lima G, Massa E, Levin G, Brandt S (2011) Run: optimal multiprocessor real-time scheduling via reduction to uniprocessor. In: IEEE real-time systems symposium (RTSS), pp 104–115

  23. Santos-Jr JAM, Lima G, Bletsas K, Kato S (2013) Multiprocessor real-time scheduling with a few migrating tasks. In: Proceedings of the 34th IEEE real-time systems symposium, pp 170–181

  24. Zhu D, Mossé D, Melhem R (2003) Multiple-resource periodic scheduling problem: how much fairness is necessary? In: IEEE real-time systems symposium (RTSS), pp 142–151

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work has been funded by CNPq and CAPES. The authors would like to thank to Geoffrey Nelissen for his comments about U-EDF and his help in its simulations.

Author information

Correspondence to Ernesto Massa.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Massa, E., Lima, G., Regnier, P. et al. Quasi-partitioned scheduling: optimality and adaptation in multiprocessor real-time systems. Real-Time Syst 52, 566–597 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11241-016-9251-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Real time
  • Scheduling
  • Multiprocessor
  • Optmality