# Static analysis of multi-core TDMA resource arbitration delays

- 416 Downloads
- 12 Citations

## Abstract

In the development of hard real-time systems, knowledge of the *Worst-Case Execution Time* (WCET) is needed to guarantee the safety of a system. For single-core systems, static analyses have been developed which are able to derive guaranteed bounds on a program’s WCET. Unfortunately, these analyses cannot directly be applied to multi-core scenarios, where the different cores may interfere with each other during the access to shared resources like for example shared buses or memories. For the arbitration of such resources, *TDMA arbitration* has been shown to exhibit favorable timing predictability properties. In this article, we review and extend a methodology for analyzing access delays for TDMA-arbitrated resources. Formal proofs of the correctness of these methods are given and a thorough experimental evaluation is carried out, where the presented techniques are compared to preexisting ones on an extensive set of real-world benchmarks for different classes of analyzed systems.

## Keywords

WCET TDMA arbitration Multi-core Shared resources Worst-case analysis Static program analysis## Notes

### Acknowledgements

This work was partially funded by the European Community’s ArtistDesign Network of Excellence, by the European Community’s 7th Framework Program FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n^{o} 216008, by the German Research Foundation DFG under reference number FA1017/1-1 and by Faculty Research Council grant T1 251RES0914 (R-252-000-416-112) at NUS.

## References

- Aho AV, Lam MS, Sethi R, Ullman JD (2006) Compilers: principles, techniques, and tools, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley, Reading Google Scholar
- Altmeyer S, Maiza C, Reineke J (2010) Resilience analysis: tightening the CRPD bound for set-associative caches. In: LCTES ’10: proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED 2010 conference on languages, compilers, and tools for embedded systems. ACM, New York, pp 153–162. http://rw4.cs.uni-saarland.de/~ reineke/publications/ResilienceAnalysisLCTES10.pdf. doi: 10.1145/1755888.1755911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Andrei A, Eles P, Peng Z, Rosen J (2008) Predictable implementation of real-time applications on multiprocessor systems-on-chip. In: Proceedings of the 21st international conference on VLSI design, VLSID ’08. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, pp 103–110 Google Scholar
- Chattopadhyay S, Roychoudhury A, Mitra T (2010) Modeling shared cache and bus in multi-cores for timing analysis. In: Proceedings of the 13th international workshop on software & compilers for embedded systems, SCOPES ’10. ACM, New York, pp 6:1–6:10 Google Scholar
- Cousot P, Cousot R (1979) Systematic design of program analysis frameworks. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on principles of programming languages (POPL), San Antonio, Texas. ACM, New York, pp 269–282 Google Scholar
- European Space Agency (2012) DEBIE—first standard space debris monitoring instrument. https://gate.etamax.de/edid/publicaccess/debie1.php
- Fleming P, Wallace J (1986) How not to lie with statistics: the correct way to summarize benchmark results. Commun ACM 29:218–221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FlexRay Consortium (2010) FlexRay communications system, protocol specification version 3.0.1. http://www.flexray.com
- Goossens K, Hansson A (2010) The aethereal network on chip after ten years: goals, evolution, lessons, and future. In: Proceedings of the 2010 design automation conference, Anaheim, California, USA. ACM, New York, pp 306–311 Google Scholar
- Gustavsson A, Ermedahl A, Lisper B, Pettersson P (2010) Towards WCET analysis of multicore architectures using UPPAAL. In: 10th International workshop on worst-case execution time analysis, WCET ’10. Schloss Dagstuhl—Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl, pp 101–112 Google Scholar
- Hardy D, Puaut I (2008) WCET analysis of multi-level non-inclusive set-associative instruction caches. In: Proceedings of the 2008 real-time systems symposium. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, pp 456–466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hardy D, Piquet T, Puaut I (2009) Using bypass to tighten WCET estimates for multi-core processors with shared instruction caches. In: Proceedings of the 2009 30th IEEE real-time systems symposium, RTSS ’09. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, pp 68–77 Google Scholar
- Kelter T, Falk H, Marwedel P, Chattopadhyay S, Roychoudhury A (2011) Bus-aware multicore WCET analysis through TDMA offset bounds. In: Proceedings of the 23rd euromicro conference on real-time systems (ECRTS), Porto/Portugal, pp 3–12 Google Scholar
- Lundqvist T, Stenström P (1999) Timing anomalies in dynamically scheduled microprocessors. In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE real-time systems symposium, RTSS ’99. IEEE Computer Society, Washington Google Scholar
- Lv M, Guan N, Yi W, Yu G (2010) Combining abstract interpretation with model checking for timing analysis of multicore software. In: 31st IEEE real-time systems symposium (RTSS) Google Scholar
- Mälardalen WCET Research Group (2012) Mälardalen WCET Benchmark Suite. http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/projects/wcet
- Mische J, Guliashvili I, Uhrig S, Ungerer T (2010) How to enhance a superscalar processor to provide hard real-time capable in-order SMT. In: Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on architecture of computing systems (ARCS), Hannover/Germany, pp 2–14. doi: 10.1007/987-3-642-11950-7_2 Google Scholar
- Muchnick SS (1997) Advanced compiler design and implementation. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo Google Scholar
- Nemer F, Cassé H, Sainrat P, Bahsoun JP, Michiel MD (2006) PapaBench: a free real-time benchmark. In: Mueller F (ed) 6th intl workshop on worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis, Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum für Informatik (IBFI). Schloss Dagstuhl, Dagstuhl Google Scholar
- Paolieri M, Quiñones E, Cazorla FJ, Bernat G, Valero M (2009) Hardware support for WCET analysis of hard real-time multicore systems. In: Proceedings of the 36th annual international symposium on computer architecture, ISCA ’09. ACM, New York, pp 57–68 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Paukovits C, Kopetz H (2008) Concepts of switching in the time-triggered network-on-chip. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE international conference on embedded and real-time computing systems and applications, pp 120–129 Google Scholar
- Pellizzoni R, Schranzhofer A, Chen JJ, Caccamo M, Thiele L (2010) Worst case delay analysis for memory interference in multicore systems. In: Proceedings of the conference on design, automation and test in Europe, DATE ’10, pp 741–746 Google Scholar
- Pitter C, Schoeberl M (2010) A real-time Java chip-multiprocessor. ACM Trans Embed Comput Syst 10:9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reineke J, Sen R (2009) Sound and efficient WCET analysis in the presence of timing anomalies. In: Holsti N (ed) 9th intl workshop on worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. Schloss Dagstuhl—Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Google Scholar
- Reineke J, Wachter B, Thesing S, Wilhelm R, Polian I, Eisinger J, Becker B (2006) A definition and classification of timing anomalies. In: Proceedings of 6th international workshop on worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis Google Scholar
- Skutella M (2009) An introduction to network flows over time. Res Trends Comb Optim. doi: 10.1007/987-3-540-76796-1_21 Google Scholar
- Suhendra V, Mitra T (2008) Exploring locking & partitioning for predictable shared caches on multi-cores. In: Proceedings of the 45th annual design automation conference, DAC ’08. ACM, New York, pp 300–303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilhelm R, Engblom J, Ermedahl A, Holsti N, Thesing S, Whalley D, Bernat G, Ferdinand C, Heckmann R, Mitra T, Mueller F, Puaut I, Puschner P, Staschulat J, Stenström P (2008) The worst-case execution-time problem—overview of methods and survey of tools. ACM Trans Embed Comput Syst 7:36:1–36:53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilhelm R, Grund D, Reineke J, Schlickling M, Pister M, Ferdinand C (2009) Memory hierarchies, pipelines, and buses for future architectures in time-critical embedded systems. IEEE Trans Comput-Aided Des Integr Circuits Syst 28(7):966–978 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang W, Yan J (2009) Accurately estimating worst-case execution time for multi-core processors with shared direct-mapped instruction caches. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, pp 455–463 Google Scholar