Real-Time Systems

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 367–400 | Cite as

Stability of adaptive feedback-based resource managers for systems with execution time variations

  • Sergiu RafiliuEmail author
  • Petru Eles
  • Zebo Peng


Today’s embedded systems are exposed to variations in load demand due to complex software applications, dynamic hardware platforms, and the impact of the run-time environment. When these variations are large, and efficiency is required, adaptive on-line resource managers may be deployed on the system to control its resource usage. An often neglected problem is whether these resource managers are stable, meaning that the resource usage is controlled under all possible scenarios. In this paper we develop mathematical models for real-time embedded systems and we derive conditions which, if satisfied, lead to stable systems. For the developed system models, we also determine bounds on the worst case response times of tasks. We also give an intuition of what stability means in a real-time context and we show how it can be applied for several resource managers. We also discuss how our results can be extended in various ways.


Control theory Stability criterion Adaptive real-time systems Utilization control 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information ScienceLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

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