Real-Time Systems

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 171–218 | Cite as

Multiprocessor schedulability of arbitrary-deadline sporadic tasks: complexity and antichain algorithm

  • Gilles Geeraerts
  • Joël Goossens
  • Markus Lindström


Baker and Cirinei (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4878, Springer, pp. 62–75, 2007) have introduced an exact but naive algorithm, that consists in solving a state reachability problem in a finite automaton, to check whether a set of sporadic hard real-time tasks is schedulable on an identical multiprocessor platform. However, this algorithm suffers from poor performance due to the exponential size of the automaton relative to the size of the task set. In this paper, we build on the work of Baker and Cirinei, and rely on their formalism to characterise the complexity of this problem. We prove that it is PSpace-complete. In order to obtain an algorithm that is applicable in practice to systems of realistic sizes, we successfully apply techniques developed by the formal verification community, specifically antichain techniques (Doyen and Raskin in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6015, Springer, pp. 2–22, 2010) to this scheduling problem. For that purpose, we define and prove the correctness of a simulation relation on Baker and Cirinei’s automaton. We show that our improved algorithm yields dramatically improved performance for the schedulability test and opens for many further improvements. This work is an extended and revised version of a previous conference paper by the same authors (Lindström et al., Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Real-Time and Network Systems (RTNS 2011), pp. 25–34, 2011).


Hard real-time scheduling Formal methods Automata theory Sporadic tasks Exact schedulability test Multiprocessor scheduling Complexity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilles Geeraerts
    • 1
  • Joël Goossens
    • 1
  • Markus Lindström
    • 1
  1. 1.Département d’Informatique, Faculté des SciencesUniversité libre de BruxellesBruxellesBelgium

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