Real-Time Systems

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 198–221 | Cite as

Hierarchical CPU utilization control for real-time guarantees in power grid computing

  • Ming Chen
  • Xiaorui WangEmail author
  • Clinton Nolan


Blackouts in our daily life can be disastrous with enormous economic loss. Blackouts usually occur when appropriate corrective actions are not effectively taken for an initial contingency. Therefore, it is critical to complete those tasks that are running power grid computing algorithms in the Energy Management System (EMS) in a timely manner to avoid blackouts. This problem can be formulated as guaranteeing end-to-end deadlines in a Distributed Real-time Embedded (DRE) system. However, existing feedback scheduling algorithms in DRE systems cannot be directly adopted to handle with significantly different timescales of power grid computing tasks. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical control solution to guarantee the deadlines of those tasks in EMS by grouping them based on their characteristics. Furthermore, we present an adaptive control scheme to achieve analytical assurance of control accuracy and system stability, in spite of significant system variation. Our solution is based on well-established control theory for guaranteed control accuracy and system stability and can adapt to changes in the system model without manual reconfiguration and profiling. Simulation results based on a realistic workload configuration demonstrate that our solution can guarantee timeliness for power grid computing and hence help to avoid blackouts.


Real-time scheduling Utilization control Power grid Feedback control 



This work was supported, in part, by the US NSF under grants CNS-0831466, CNS-0720663, and CNS-0845390, and by the US ONR under grant N00014-09-1-0750. We thank Ms. Sarina Adhikari, Dr. Fangxing Li, and Dr. Hairong Qi at the University of Tennessee for their insightful discussion in the early phase of this work. This paper is a significantly extended version of a conference paper (Chen et al. 2009).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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