Real-Time Systems

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 41–71 | Cite as

Hardware design of a new genetic based disk scheduling method

  • Hossein Rahmani
  • Mohammad Reza Bonyadi
  • Amir Momeni
  • Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam
  • Maghsoud Abbaspour
Article

Abstract

Disk management is an increasingly important aspect of operating systems research and development because it has great effect on system performance. As the gap between processor and disk performance continues to increase in modern systems, access to mass storage is a common bottleneck that ultimately limits overall system performance. In this paper, we propose hardware architecture of a new genetic based real-time disk scheduling method. Also, to have a precise simulation, a neural network is proposed to simulate seek-time of disks. Simulation results showed the hardware implementation of proposed algorithm outperformed software implementation in term of execution time, and other related works in terms of number of tasks that miss deadlines and average seeks.

Keywords

Disk scheduling Neural network Genetic algorithm Hardware design 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott R, Molina HG (1990) Scheduling I/O requests with deadlines: a performance evaluation. In: Proceedings of the IEEE real-time systems symposium, RTSS, pp 113–124 Google Scholar
  2. Aboutabl M, Agrawala A, Decotignie JD (1997) Temporally determinate disk access: an experimental approach. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGMETRICS joint international conference on measurement and modeling of computer systems, pp 280–281 Google Scholar
  3. Buddhikot MM, Parulkar GM, Cox JR (1994) Design of a large scale multimedia storage server. J Comput Netw ISDN Syst 27(3):503–517 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang RI, Shih WK, Chang RC (1998) Deadline-modification-scan with maximum scannable-groups for multimedia real-time disk scheduling. In: Proceedings of the IEEE real-time systems symposium, pp 40–49 Google Scholar
  5. Chang HP, Chang RI, Shih WK, Chang RC (2001) Reschedulable-group-scan scheme for mixed real-time/non-real-time disk scheduling in a multimedia system. J Syst Softw 59(2):143–152 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang HP, Chang RI, Shih WK, Chang RC (2007) GSR: a global seek-optimizing real-time disk-scheduling algorithm. J Syst Softw 80(2):198–215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. John SC, Stankovic JA, Kurose JF, Towsley D (1991) Performance evaluation of two new disk scheduling algorithms for real-time systems. J Real-Time Syst 3(3):307–336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen TS, Yang WP, Lee RCT (1992) Amortized analysis of some disk scheduling algorithms: SSTF, SCAN, and N-step SCAN. BIT 32(4):546–558 MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen PY, Chen RD, Chang YP, Shieh LS, Malki HA (2008) Hardware implementation for a genetic algorithm. IEEE Trans Instrum Meas 57(4):699–705 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiueh TC, Huang L (2002) Track-based disk logging. In: Proceedings of international conference on dependable systems and networks, pp 429–438 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coffman EG, Klimko LA, Ryan B (1972) Analysis of scanning policies for reducing disk seek times. SIAM J Comput 1(3):269–279 MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demuth H, Beale M (1993) Neural network toolbox for use with Matlab. User Guide Version 4, The Mathworks, Inc Google Scholar
  13. Denning PJ (1967) Effects of scheduling on file memory operations. In: AFIPS joint computer conferences. Atlantic City, New Jersey, pp 9–21 Google Scholar
  14. Geist R, Daniel S (1987) A continuum of disk scheduling algorithms. ACM Trans Comput Syst 5(1):77–92 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gemmell J, Christoduoulakis S (1992) Principles of delay sensitive multimedia data storage and retrieval. ACM Trans Inf Syst 10(1):51–90 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gim J, Won Y, Chang J, Shim J, Park Y (2008) DIG: rapid characterization of modern hard disk drive and its performance implication. In: 5th IEEE international workshop on in storage network architecture and parallel I/Os Google Scholar
  17. Hagan MT, Demuth HB, Beale M (1996) Neural network design. PWS, Boston Google Scholar
  18. Hofri M (1980) Disk scheduling: FCFS vs. SSTF revisited. Commun ACM 23(11):645–653 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holland JH (1975) Adaption in natural and artificial systems. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor MATHGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang PC, Lu WC, Chou CN, Shih WK (2005) The NP-hardness and the algorithm for real-time disk-scheduling in a multimedia system. In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE international conference on embedded and real-time computing systems and applications, RTCSA’05, Hong Kong, pp 260–265 Google Scholar
  21. Hwang R, Gen M, Katayama H (2008) A comparison of multiprocessor task scheduling algorithm with communication cost. Comput Oper Res 35(3):976–993 MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. Iyer S (2001) The effect of deceptive idleness on disk schedulers. Master’s thesis, Computer Science Department, Rice University Google Scholar
  23. Schindler J, Griffin JL, Lumb CR, Ganger GR (2002) Track-aligned extents: matching access patterns to disk drive characteristics. In: Proceedings of the 1st usenix symposium on file and storage technologies, FAST Google Scholar
  24. Lei T, Zhu MC, Wang JX (2002) The hardware implementation of a genetic algorithm model with FPGA. In: IEEE international conference on field-programmable technology, Hong Kong, pp 374–377 Google Scholar
  25. Liu B, Rangaswami R, Dimitrijevic Z (2005) Thwarting virtual bottlenecks in multi-bitrate streaming servers. In: Proceedings of the real-time systems symposium WiP Google Scholar
  26. Lu LF, Yuan JJ (2007) The single machine batching problem with identical family setup times to minimize maximum lateness is strongly NP-hard. Eur J Oper Res 177(2):1302–1309 MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martin P (2002) An analysis of random number generators for a hardware implementation of genetic programming using FPGAs and Handel-C. In: Proceedings of the genetic and evolutionary computation conference, pp 837–844 Google Scholar
  28. Selvi RM, Rajaram R (2007) Effect of cross over operation in genetic algorithms on anticipatory scheduling. In: 24th international symposium on automation & robotics in construction, ISARC Google Scholar
  29. Ökdem S, Karaboga D (2006) Optimal disk scheduling based on ant colony optimization algorithm. Erciyes Univ J Inst Sci Technol 22:11–19 Google Scholar
  30. Plagemann T, Goebel V, Halvorsen P, Anshus O (2000) Operating system support for multimedia systems. Comput Commun J 23(3):267–289 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reddy ALN, Wyllie JC (1994) I/O issues in a multimedia system. IEEE Comput 27(3):69–74 Google Scholar
  32. Reddy ALN, Wyllie J, Wijayaratne KBR (2005) Disk scheduling in a multimedia I/O system. ACM Trans Multimed Comput Commun Appl 1(1):37–59 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ruemmler C, Wilkes J (1994) An introduction to disc drive modeling. IEEE Comput 27(3):17–29 Google Scholar
  34. Santos R, Lipari G, Santos J (2008) Improving the schedulability of soft real-time open dynamic systems: the inheritor is actually a debtor. J Syst Software 81(7):1093–1104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schlosser SW, Schindler J, Papadomanolakis S, Shao M, Ailamaki A, Faloutsos C, Ganger GR (2005) On multidimensional data and modern disks. In: Proceedings of the 4th USENIX conference on file and storage technology, FAST ’05. San Francisco, pp 225–238 Google Scholar
  36. Serra M, Slater T, Muzio JC, Miller DM (1990) The analysis of one-dimensional linear cellular automata and their aliasing properties. IEEE Trans Comput-Aided Des Integr Circuits Syst 9(7):767–778 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sohn JM, Kim GY (1997) Earliest-deadline-first scheduling on nonpreemptive real-time threads for continuous media server. In: Proceedings of the conference on high-performance computing and networking Google Scholar
  38. Tachibana T, Murata Y, Shibata N, Yasumoto K, Ito M (2006) General architecture for hardware implementation of genetic algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 14th annual IEEE symposium on field-programmable custom computing machines, pp 291–292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tachibana T, Murata Y, Shibata N, Yasumoto K, Ito M (2007) Proposal of flexible implementation of genetic algorithms on FPGAs. Syst Comput Jpn 38(13):28–38 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tanenbaum AS (2001) Modern operating systems, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, New York Google Scholar
  41. Thomas S, Seshadri S, Haritsa JR (1996) Integrating standard transactions in firm real-time database systems. Inf Syst 21(1):3–28 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turton BCH, Arsalan T (1995) A parallel genetic VLSI architecture for combinatorial real-time applications-disk scheduling. In: IEEE international conference on genetic algorithms in engineering systems: innovations and applications, GALESIA, pp 493–498 Google Scholar
  43. Ulusoy O, Belford GG (1993) Real-time transaction scheduling in database systems. Inf Syst 18(9):559–580 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wong CK (1980) Minimizing expected head movement in one dimension and two dimensions mass storage system. ACM Comput Surv 12(2):167–178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Worthington BL, Ganger GR, Patt YN (1994) Scheduling algorithms for modern disk drives. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS conference, pp 241–251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Worthington BL, Ganger GR, Patt YN, Wilkes J (1995) On-line extraction of SCSI disk drive parameters. ACM SIGMETRICS Perform Eval Rev 23(1), 146–156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wu AS, Yu H, Jin S, Lin KC, Schiavone G (2004) An incremental genetic algorithm approach to multiprocessor scheduling. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 15(9):824–834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yu PS, Chen MS, Kandlur DD (1992) Design and analysis of a grouped sweeping scheme for multimedia storage management. In: 3rd international workshop on network and operating system support for digital audio and video, SanDiego, California, pp 44–55 Google Scholar
  49. Yu PS, Chen MS, Kandlur DD (1993) Grouped sweeping scheduling for DASD-based multimedia storage management. Multimed Syst 1(3):99–109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Rahmani
    • 1
  • Mohammad Reza Bonyadi
    • 1
  • Amir Momeni
    • 1
  • Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam
    • 1
  • Maghsoud Abbaspour
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentShahid Beheshti University G.C.TehranIran

Personalised recommendations