Real-Time Systems

, Volume 33, Issue 1–3, pp 47–75 | Cite as

Finite-horizon scheduling of radar dwells with online template construction

  • Sathish Gopalakrishnan
  • Marco Caccamo
  • Chi-Sheng Shih
  • Chang-Gun Lee
  • Lui Sha
Article

Abstract

Timing constraints for radar tasks are usually specified in terms of the minimum and maximum temporal distance between successive radar dwells. We utilize the idea of feasible intervals for dealing with the temporal distance constraints. In order to increase the freedom that the scheduler can offer a high-level resource manager, we introduce a technique for nesting and interleaving dwells online while accounting for the energy constraint that radar systems need to satisfy. Further, in radar systems, the task set changes frequently and we advocate the use of finite horizon scheduling in order to avoid the pessimism inherent in schedulers that assume a task will execute forever. The combination of feasible intervals and online dwell packing allows modular schedule updates whereby portions of a schedule can be altered without affecting the entire schedule, hence reducing the complexity of the scheduler. Through extensive simulations we validate our claims of providing greater scheduling flexibility without compromising on performance when compared with earlier work based on templates constructed offline. We also evaluate the impact of two parameters in our scheduling approach: the template length (or the extent of dwell nesting and interleaving) and the length of the finite horizon.

Keywords

Radar dwell scheduling Real-time scheduling Energy constraints Finite horizon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baugh RA (1973) Computer control of modern radars. RCA Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Bettati R (1994) Elcnd-To-End Scheduling To Meet Deadlines In Distributed Systems. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  3. Baptiste P, Le Pape C, Nuitjen W (2001) Constraint-based scheduling: Applying constraint programming to scheduling problems. International series in operations research and management science. Kluwer.Google Scholar
  4. Dong L (2001) Template-Based Scheduling Algorithms for Real-Time Tasks with Distance Constraints. PhD thesis, University of PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  5. Dong L, Melhem RG, Mossè D (1998) Time slot allocation for real-time messages with negotiable distance constrains. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Technology and Application Symposium, pp 131–136Google Scholar
  6. Garey MR, Johnson DS (1979) Computers and intractability: A guide to the theory of NP-completeness. W.H. FreemanGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghosh S, Rajkumar R, Hansen J, Lehoczky J (2004) Integrated resource management and scheduling with multi-resource constraints. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp 12–22Google Scholar
  8. Gopalakrishnan S, Shih C-S, Ganti P, Caccamo M, Sha L, Lee C-G (2004) Radar dwell scheduling with temporal distance and energy constraints. In International Radar ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  9. Hansen J, Ghosh S, Rajkumar R, Lehoczky J (2004) Resource management of highly configurable tasks. In Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Real-Time SystemsGoogle Scholar
  10. Han C-C, Lin K-J (1992) Scheduling distance-constrained real-time tasks. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp 300–308Google Scholar
  11. Hsueh C-W, Lin K-J, Fa N (1995) Distributed pinwheel scheduling with end-to-end timing constraints. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  12. Han C-C, Lin K-J, Hou C-J (1996) Distance-constrained scheduling and its applications to real-time systems. IEEE Transaction on Computers 45(7):814–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jeffay K, Stanat DF, Martel CU (1991) On non-preemptive scheduling of periodic and sporadic tasks. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp 129–139Google Scholar
  14. Kuo T-W, Chao Y-S, Kuo C-F, Chang C, Su Y-L (2002) Real-time dwell scheduling of component-oriented phased array radars. In Proceedings of the IEEE 2002 Radar Conference, pp 92–97Google Scholar
  15. Kirschmann R, ed. (1998) High-temperature electronics. Wiley-IEEE PressGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee C-G, Kang P-S, Shih C-S, Sha L (2003) Radar dwell scheduling considering physical characteristics of phased array antenna. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu CL, Layland J (1973) Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard real-time environment. Journal of the ACM 20(1):46–61CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. Raemer HR (1996) Radar System Principles. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Shih C-S, Gopalakrishnan S, Ganti P, Caccamo M, Sha L (2003a) Scheduling real-time dwells using tasks with synthetic periods. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Systems SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  20. Shih C-S, Gopalakrishnan S, Ganti P, Caccamo M, Sha L (2003b) Template-based real-time dwell scheduling with energy constraint. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications SymposiumGoogle Scholar
  21. Shih C-S, Ganti P, Gopalakrishnan S, Caccamo M, Sha L (2004) Synthesizing task periods for dwells in multi-function phased array radars. In Proceedings of the IEEE Radar ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  22. Sprunt B, Sha L, Lehoczky J (1989) Aperiodic task scheduling for hard-real-time systems. Real-time Systems JournalGoogle Scholar
  23. Sun J (1997) Fixed-Priority End-to-End Scheduling in Distributed Real-time Systems. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  24. Van Hentenryck PV, Deville Y (1991) Operational semantics of constraint logic programming over finite domains. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming, pp 395–406. Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  25. Varga A (2000) OMNeT++ 2.0: Discrete Event Simulation System. Department of Telcommunications (BME-HIT), Technical University of Budapest, Hungary, http://www.hit.bme.hu/phd/vargaa/omnetpp.htm

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sathish Gopalakrishnan
    • 1
  • Marco Caccamo
    • 1
  • Chi-Sheng Shih
    • 2
  • Chang-Gun Lee
    • 3
  • Lui Sha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Graduate Institute of Networking and MultimediaNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations