Aging peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) cultures lose embryogenic potential and metabolic cellular function due to continuous culture in hypoxic environments

  • Joseph Francis Ree
  • Luiza Giacomolli Polesi
  • Franklin Back
  • Amanda Azevedo Bertolazi
  • Vanildo Silveira
  • Miguel Pedro GuerraEmail author
Original Article


Formerly-embryogenic 8-year-old and 2-year-old embryogenic peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) cultures were treated with 0, 4, 16, or 64 µM 5-azacytidine, an inhibitor of cytosine methylation, to evaluate its ability to restore embryogenic potential to old cultures and observe its effects on younger embryogenic tissue. Either 16 or 64 µM 5-azacytidine restored the ability of a small proportion of older cultures to produce somatic embryos, but the same concentration also caused somatic embryos from the 2-year-old embryogenic culture line to lose regulation, resulting in non-embryogenic cultures and fast-growing yellow callus. Two-year-old embryogenic tissue had slightly lower global methylation, but only 4 µM 5-azacytidine caused a drop in global methylation. Two-year-old and 5-azacytidine-treated 8-year-old embryogenic cultures both showed an up-accumulation of proteins involved in a number of cellular functions: cellular redox control, anaerobic fermentation, protein degradation, NO-related synthesis and storage, and several forms of epigenetic regulation, including the highly-conserved Argonaute 4 protein; and untreated 8-year-old cultures showed increased amounts of proteins involved in cell wall formation and rearrangement, defense-related peroxidases associated with the cell wall, and phospholipidase D. All three tissues showed proteins involved in hypoxia response. HPLC analysis of 8-year-old cultures with embryogenic and non-embryogenic 2-year-old cultures revealed that 8-year-old cultures lacked any detectable carbohydrates, whereas the younger ones contained measurable amounts of arabinose, ribose, and sucrose. Aging of in vitro cultures is, therefore, likely related to loss of metabolic ability due to constant hypoxia, leading to low vigor, inability to adapt to stress, and loss of embryogenic potential.

Key message

Embryogenesis loss in ageing peach palm cultures is associated with hypoxia, leading to loss in detectable carbohydrates and down-accumulation of proteins associated with metabolism, nitric oxide storage, and epigenetic regulation


5-Azacytidine Aging Somatic embryogenesis Epigenetic regulation Hypoxia Carbohydrate metabolism 



The authors thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Proc. 407974/2018-0, and 302798/2018-8) and CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) of Brazil for funding.

Author contributions

JFR and MPG designed the experiment. JFR performed in vitro experiments, sample collection, statistical analysis, and data interpretation. LGP and FB performed the HPLC data collection. AZB and VS performed the proteomic analysis and identification of differentially-accumulated proteins. JFR wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to report.

Supplementary material

11240_2019_1710_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos VegetaisUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecossistemas Agrícolas e NaturaisUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaCuritibanosBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia (CBB)Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Unidade de Biologia Integrativa, Setor de Genômica e Proteômica, UENFRio de JaneiroBrazil

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