NaCl-induced stress: physiological responses of six halophyte species in in vitro and in vivo culture
- 107 Downloads
To investigate the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance, physiological parameters of six halophyte species [Vitex rotundifolia L., Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn, Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene, Scaevola sericea Vahl, Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) Nichols, and Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagn] under NaCl stress in in vitro and in vivo culture tests were examined. Membership function analysis and cluster analysis divided the six species, based on their salt tolerance level, into three groups: Group 1 (highly salt tolerant) included C. inerme, A. bettzickiana and S. sericea; Group 2 (moderately salt tolerant) included P. nodiflora; Group 3 (weakly salt tolerant) included V. rotundifolia and D. cambodiana. In response to in vitro NaCl stress, all six species showed a significant increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. NaCl stress enhanced free proline content in the leaves of all six species. CAT, SOD activity and proline accumulation were significantly correlated with the growth of C. inerme, P. nodiflora and A. bettzickiana under in vitro NaCl treatment. We conclude that NaCl-tolerant plants may suffer slight damage within a certain salt concentration, as evidenced by the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the accumulation of free proline.
Six halophytic species showed a different salt tolerance level under in vitro and in vivo culture tests, due to the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the accumulation of free proline.
KeywordsHalophyte Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn Vitex rotundifolia L. Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene Scaevola sericea Vahl Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) Nichols Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagn Salt tolerance Physiological parameters
Murashige and Skoog
The authors thank Guangdong Zhongke Qilin Landscape Co., Ltd. for providing D. cambodiana plantlets.
YPX and HZL prepared samples for all analyses. HFY, SYC, BYG and MYN conducted the statistical analysis of physiological changes. YPX and HFY were also involved in statistical analysis and wrote the manuscript. JATdS offered interpretative analysis and co-wrote the manuscript. SGJ, HR, XHZ, YL, SJZ, KLW, FZ, JATdS and GHM designed the experiment and provided guidance for the study. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1403000/2016YFC1403002), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA13020500) and the National Science and Technology Support Program (2015BAL04B04). The funding agencies had no role in the design, analysis, and interpretation of the data or writing of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Ahanger MA, Tomar NS, Tittal M, Argal S, Agarwal RM (2017) Plant growth under water/salt stress: ROS production; antioxidants and significance of added potassium under such conditions. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 23:731–744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-017-0462-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cha-um S, Somsueb S, Samphumphuang T, Kirdmanee C (2013) Salt tolerant screening in eucalypt genotypes (Eucalyptus spp.) using photosynthetic abilities, proline accumulation, and growth characteristics as effective indices. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 49:611–619. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11627-013-9537-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Min D, Yasir TA, Hu Y-G (2012) Evaluation of 14 morphological, yield-related and physiological traits as indicators of drought tolerance in Chinese winter bread wheat revealed by analysis of the membership function value of drought tolerance (MFVD). Field Crop Res 137:195–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gao W, He M, Liu J, Ma X, Zhang Y, Dai S, Zhou Y (2018) Overexpression of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium ClCBF1 in Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘White Snow’ improves the level of salinity and drought tolerance. Plant Physiol Biochem 124:50–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.01.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ghars MA, Parre E, Debez A, Bordenave M, Richard L, Leport L, Bouchereau A, Savouré A, Abdelly C (2008) Comparative salt tolerance analysis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella halophila, with special emphasis on K+/Na+ selectivity and proline accumulation. J Plant Physiol 165:588–599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2007.05.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gregorio GB, Senadhira D, Mendoza RD (1997) Screening rice for salinity tolerance. IRRI discussion paper series NO. 22. International Rice Research Instituete, Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
- Hu G, Liu Y, Duo T, Zhao B, Cui G, Ji J, Kuang X, Ervin EH, Zhang X (2018) Antioxidant metabolism variation associated with alkali-salt tolerance in thirty switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) lines. PLoS ONE 13:e0199681. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199681 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Khan MA, Qaiser M (2006) Halophytes of Pakistan: characteristics, distribution and potential economic usages. In: Khan MA, Böer B, Kust GS, Barth H-J (eds) Sabkha ecosystems, vol II. West and Central Asia. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 129–153. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5072-5_11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu Q, Tang J, Wang W, Zhang Y, Yuan H, Huang S (2018) Transcriptome analysis reveals complex response of the medicinal/ornamental halophyte Iris halophila Pall. to high environmental salinity. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 165:250–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A reviced medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacoo tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15:473–497. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prerostova S, Dobrev PI, Gaudinova A, Hosek P, Soudek P, Knirsch V, Vankova R (2017) Hormonal dynamics during salt stress responses of salt-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana and salt-tolerant Thellungiella salsuginea. Plant Sci 264:188–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2017.07.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rossatto T, do Amaral MN, Benitez LC, Vighi IL, Braga EJB, de Magalhães Júnior AM, Maia MAC, da Silva Pinto L (2017) Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in rice plants, cv. BRS AG, under saline stress. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 23:865–875. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-017-0467-2 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sarabi B, Bolandnazar S, Ghaderi N, Ghashghaie J (2017) Genotypic differences in physiological and biochemical responses to salinity stress in melon (Cucumis melo L.) plants: prospects for selection of salt tolerant landraces. Plant Physiol Biochem 119:294–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.09.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Silva-Ortega CO, Ochoa-Alfaro AE, Reyes-Agüero JA, Aguado-Santacruz GA, Jiménez-Bremont JF (2008) Salt stress increases the expression of p5cs gene and induces proline accumulation in cactus pear. Plant Physiol Biochem 46:82–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.10.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang J, Liu Q, Yuan H, Zhang Y, Wang W, Huang S (2018) Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel salt-specific responsive WRKY transcription factor gene IlWRKY2 from the halophyte Iris lactea var. chinensis. Genes Genomics 40:893–903. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13258-018-0698-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang B, Guo X, Zhao P, Ruan M, Yu X, Zou L, Yang Y, Li X, Deng D, Xiao J, Xiao Y, Hu C, Wang X, Wang X, Wang W, Peng M (2017) Molecular diversity analysis, drought related marker-traits association mapping and discovery of excellent alleles for 100-day old plants by EST-SSRs in cassava germplasms (Manihot esculenta Cranz). PLoS ONE 12:e0177456. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177456 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Yao L, Wang J, Li B, Meng Y, Ma X, Si E, Ren P, Yang K, Shang X, Wang H (2018) Transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of differentially-expressed isoforms in the roots of Halogeton glomeratus under salt stress. Gene 646:159–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2017.12.058 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yi X, Sun Y, Yang Q, Guo A, Chang L, Wang D, Tong Z, Jin X, Wang L, Yu J, Jin W, Xie Y, Wang X (2014) Quantitative proteomics of Sesuvium portulacastrum leaves revealed that ion transportation by V-ATPase and sugar accumulation in chloroplast played crucial roles in halophyte salt tolerance. J Proteom 99:84–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2014.01.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yuan F, Lyu MJ, Leng BY, Zheng GY, Feng ZT, Li PH, Zhu XG, Wang BS (2015) Comparative transcriptome analysis of developmental stages of the Limonium bicolor leaf generates insights into salt gland differentiation. Plant, Cell Environ 38:1637–1657. https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.12514 CrossRefGoogle Scholar