The effects of chitosan and salicylic acid on elicitation of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of safflower under in vitro salinity stress
- 81 Downloads
This study investigated the effects of different concentrations of two elicitors, namely chitosan (CHT) (25 and 50 mg L−1) and salicylic acid (SA) (50 and 100 mg L−1) on the production of secondary metabolites (SMs) and antioxidant activity of safflower callus under salinity stress. The content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, total flavonols, anthocyanin and antioxidant activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH), significantly increased under salinity stress including 1.5% (w/v) sodium chloride. Under salinity stress, the highest content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were observed under elicitation by 50 (mg L−1) of SA and 25 (mg L−1) of CHT, but the highest callus growth rate (0.048 mm day−1), highest content of total flavonols (4.2 mg RE g−1 FW) and the highest DPPH activity (61.48% of inhibition) were observed under elicitation by 50 (mg L−1) of SA under salinity stress. This indicated partial superiority elicitation of SA over CHT for callus growth and SMs production of safflower under salinity stress. This new elicitation opens new avenues for the selection and exploitation of the best elicitors and their dosages for the enhancement of commercially important SMs in safflower as an important medicinal plant at cellular level.
Effects of chitosan and salicylic acid on elicitation of SMs of safflower under in vitro salinity stress.
KeywordsAntioxidant activity Callus Chitosan Salicylic acid Total phenolic content
Reactive oxygen species
Total phenolics content
Total flavonoids content
Total flavonols content
The authors would like to thank Research Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ajungla L, Patil P, Barmukh R, Nikam T (2009) Influence of biotic and abiotic elicitors on accumulation of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in root cultures of Datura metel L. Indian J Biotechnol 8:317–322Google Scholar
- Alrawaiq NS, Abdullah A (2014) A review of flavonoid quercetin: metabolism, bioactivity and antioxidant properties. Int J PharmTech Res 6(3):933–941Google Scholar
- El-Nabarawy M, El-Kafafi S, Hamza M, Omar M (2015) The effect of some factors on stimulating the growth and production of active substances in Zingiber officinale callus cultures. Ann Agric Sci 60:1–9Google Scholar
- Falcone Ferreyra ML, Rius S, Casati P (2012) Flavonoids: biosynthesis, biological functions, and biotechnological applications. Front Plant Sci 3:222Google Scholar
- Golkar P, Taghizadeh M (2018) In vitro evaluation of phenolic and osmolite compounds, ionic content, and antioxidant activity in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under salinity stress. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 134:357–368Google Scholar
- Golkar P, Amooshahi F, Arzani A (2017) The effects of salt stress on physio-biochemical traits, total phenolic and mucilage content of Plantago ovata Forsk under in vitro conditions. J Appl Bot Food Qual 90:224–231Google Scholar
- Govindaraju S, Arulselvi PI (2018) Effect of cytokinin combined elicitors (l-phenylalanine, salicylic acid and chitosan) on in vitro propagation, secondary metabolites and molecular characterization of medicinal herb–Coleus aromaticus Benth (L). J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 17:435–444Google Scholar
- Namdeo A (2007) Plant cell elicitation for production of secondary metabolites: a review. Pharmacogn Rev 1(1):69–79Google Scholar
- Salimgandomi S, Shabrangi A (2016) The effect of Chitosan on antioxidant activity and some secondary metabolites of Mentha piperita L. J Pharm Health Sci 4:135–142Google Scholar
- Sharma V, Ramawat KG (2014) Salt stress enhanced antioxidant response in callus of three halophytes (Salsola baryosma, Trianthema triquetra, Zygophyllum simplex) of Thar desert. Biologia 69:178–185Google Scholar
- Talukder P, Talapatra S, Ghoshal N, Sen Raychaudhuri S (2016) Antioxidant activity and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds during in vitro callus culture of Plantago ovata Forsk. and effect of exogenous additives on accumulation of phenolic compounds. J Sci Food Agric 96:232–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar