Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 136, Issue 1, pp 1–13 | Cite as

Isolation and functional identification of an apple MdCER1 gene

  • Chen-Hui Qi
  • Xian-Yan Zhao
  • Han Jiang
  • Peng-Fei Zheng
  • Hai-Tao Liu
  • Yuan-Yuan LiEmail author
  • Yu-Jin HaoEmail author


The outermost layer of the plant epidermis is covered by cuticular wax, which resists UV radiation, insects, and pathogens, and protects the plant from various environmental stressors. We cloned MdCER1 to further study the molecular regulatory pathway of cuticular wax in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). The results showed that MdCER1 is a homolog of Arabidopsis CER1, which is essential for wax synthesis. A subcellular localization study revealed that MdCER1 was localized on the endoplasmic reticulum. We examined the expression pattern of MdCER1 in different tissues and found that it was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits, with the highest expression in leaves. Ectopic expression of MdCER1 promoted the accumulation of cuticular wax by changing the permeability of the epidermis and the response to abscisic acid, as well as by improving drought resistance in Arabidopsis.


Apple MdCER1 Cuticular wax Functional characterization 



Acyl carrier protein






Trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase


Endoplasmic reticulum


Fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase


Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase


3-Ketoacyl coenzyme A synthase




Quantitative real-time PCR


Very long chain fatty acid




Wax crystal-sparse leaf 4


Scanning electron microscopy


Toluidine blue


Empty vector



This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772275) and the Natural Science Fund for Excellent Young Scholars of Shandong Province (ZR2018JL014).

Author contributions

Y-JH and Y-YL planned and designed the research. C-HQ, X-YZ, HJ and H-TL performed the experiments and analyzed the data. C-HQ, and Y-YL wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors have declared that this article would have no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

All the authors have declared our research would not involve any human participants and/or animals.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, National Research Center for Apple Engineering and TechnologyShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of HorticultureNorthwest A&F UniversityXianyangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Shandong Yihui Detection Technology Co. Ltd.Tai’anPeople’s Republic of China

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