In vitro induction of allohexaploid and resulting phenotypic variation in Populus
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Although triploid Populus varieties have been used widely in timber and pulpwood production, the performance of economic traits in Populus with higher ploidy levels remains unknown due to a lack of germplasms with higher ploidy. In this study, we first successfully induced hexaploids in Populus by treating triploid leaf explants with colchicine in vitro. In total, 32 hexaploids were produced. The frequency of hexaploids was significantly affected by the interaction between colchicine concentration and exposure time. The highest hexaploid induction efficiency was 16.89% (± 2.26), which was achieved by treating explants with 0.04% colchicine for 7 days. Compared to triploids, hexaploids had thinner epidermal hair, larger stomata and protoplasts, and fewer chloroplasts, indicating that significant phenotypic changes accompanied an increase in ploidy level. These hexaploids are valuable for investigating the performance of economic traits in Populus with higher ploidy levels and have the potential to be used as parents to produce new tetraploid and pentaploid germplasms in Populus breeding programs.
KeywordsAllohexaploid Chromosome doubling Colchicine Phenotypic variation Populus Shoot organogenesis
Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium
Cell protoplast washing medium
4-Morpholine ethane sulfonic acid
Bovine serum albumin
Analysis of variance
Least significant difference
Scanning electron microscopy
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31470662) and the program from the Beijing Municipal Education Commission (Grant No. CEFF-PXM2018_014207_000024). The English in this document has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English. For a certificate, please see: http://www.textcheck.com/certificate/D74xMK.
JW conceived and designed research. WL, SS and BH conducted experiments. YZ and DL analyzed data and prepared figures. WL and JW wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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