Soluble sugar, starch and phenolic status during rooting of easy- and difficult-to-root magnolia cultivars
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The aim of the study was to determine the effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and exogenous sucrose concentrations on in vitro rooting, soluble sugar, starch and phenolic production, and ex vitro survival of four magnolia cultivars. There was a significant linear increase in rooting of most magnolia genotypes with an increase in IBA concentration in the medium from 1 to 6 mg L−1. A further increase of IBA concentration to 10 mg L−1 decreased (‘Elizabeth’, ‘Burgundy’) or had no effect on rooting frequency (‘Spectrum’). The effect of IBA on rooting of magnolia shoots was modified by sucrose supply. The three out of four magnolia cultivars showed the highest rooting efficiency in the presence of 6 mg L−1 IBA and 30 g L−1 of sucrose. Generally, decreasing and increasing the sucrose supply from 30 g L−1 significantly lowered the rooting frequency. In ‘Yellow Bird’, sucrose at 40 g L−1 totally blocked root formation. It has been found that the poor rooting ability of ‘Yellow Bird’ coincided with a low soluble sugar content, and high production of starch and phenolics in the shoot bases during the whole rooting period as compared to easy-to-root cultivars. After 5 weeks of the growth on IBA medium, rooted and unrooted shoots were transferred to ex vitro conditions. Both types of shoots showed a high survival and rooting rate (85.4–100%), but they differed in their growth activity and quality. Sucrose concentration in the rooting medium had a post-effect on ex vitro root formation and survival of magnolia plantlets. Ex vitro establishment (13.3%) of recalcitrant ‘Yellow Bird’ was obtained only when the shoots were taken from rooting medium containing the lowest level of sucrose (20 g L−1).
KeywordsAcclimatization Auxin concentrations In vitro Root formation Sucrose concentrations
This research was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education as part of the statutory activities (Grant No. 10.1.3) of the Department of Applied Biology, Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, Poland.
In this experiment Wojtania A. designed and carried out the experiment, analyzed data and wrote the paper. Skrzypek E. was responsible for biochemical analysis. Marasek-Ciołakowska A. was responsible for histological analysis of tissue, including material fixation, slides preparation and photo documentation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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