Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 130, Issue 2, pp 255–263 | Cite as

A comparative study on growth and morphology of wasabi plantlets under the influence of the micro-environment in shoot and root zones during photoautotrophic and photomixotrophic micropropagation

Original Article


The growth of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) plantlets under different micro-environments inside culture vessels in photoautotrophic micropropagation (PA) and photomixotrophic micropropagation (PM) conditions were compared. After 28 days of culture, dry weight, relative growth rate, leaf area, and leaf chlorophyll contents of plantlets in PA were greater than those in PM. The number of leaves did not differ significantly between PA and PM conditions. PA promoted root growth and development with a greater number of roots, root length, root diameter, root fresh weight, root dry weight, and root xylem vessel system. Dissolved oxygen concentration in PA culture medium sharply decreased after 7 days of culture and then recovered. In PM culture medium, no significant fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration was apparent. The net photosynthetic rates of plantlets in PA were much higher than those in PM and increased with culture time. In contrast, the net photosynthetic rates of wasabi plantlets in PM kept a low and constant value during the culture period. With the presence of gas exchange membranes attached to the vessel lids, the detected vapor pressure deficit was higher in PA than in PM conditions. Higher stomatal density and larger stomatal aperture on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves in PM medium promoted leaf water loss following ex vitro conditions. Thus, PA is applicable for producing healthy wasabi transplants.


Dissolved oxygen concentration Evapotranspiration Medium water loss Photosynthesis Wasabia japonica 



Photoautotrophic micropropagation


Photomixotrophic micropropagation


Fresh weight


Dry weight


Relative growth rate


Shoot/root dry weight ratio


Water content


Water loss rate


Net photosynthetic rate


Relative humidity


Vapor pressure deficit


Dissolved oxygen



The authors would like to thank Yanmar Co. Ltd. for providing wasabi materials and equipment and also Dr. Hajime Furukawa, Osaka Prefecture University, for providing meristem cultures.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Sciences and TechnologyOsaka Prefecture UniversitySakaiJapan

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