Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 128, Issue 3, pp 487–508 | Cite as

Bacteria in the plant tissue culture environment

Review

Abstract

Bacteria and plants are joined in various symbiotic relationships that have developed over millennia and have influenced the evolution of both groups. Bacteria inhabit the surfaces of most plants and are also present inside many plant organs. These bacteria may have positive, neutral or negative impacts on their plant hosts. Probiotic effects may improve plant nutrition or increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Conversely pathogenic bacteria may kill or reduce the vigor of plant hosts. In addition some bacteria inhabit plants and profit from excess metabolites or shelter while not injuring the plant. Micropropagation of plants is based on the stimulation of organogenesis or embryogenesis from explants that are superficially decontaminated and placed into a sterile environment. If successful, this process removes bacteria from surfaces, but those inhabiting inner tissues and organs are usually not affected by these steriliants. In vitro conditions are designed for optimal plant growth and development, however these conditions are also often ideal for bacterial multiplication. The presence of bacteria in the in vitro environment was almost universally considered negative for plant culture, but more recently this view has been questioned. Certain bacteria appear to have a beneficial effect on the explants in culture; increasing multiplication and rooting, increasing explant quality, and organo- and embryogenesis of recalcitrant genotypes. The most important role of beneficial bacteria for micropropagated plants is likely to be during acclimatization, when growth is resumed under natural conditions. This review includes the role of bacterial interactions in plants, especially those grown in vitro.

Keywords

Beneficial bacteria Biotization Burkholderia Contamination Stress Symbiosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teresa Orlikowska
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Nowak
    • 1
  • Barbara Reed
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute of HorticultureSkierniewicePoland
  2. 2.Department of HorticultureOregon State University and U S Department of AgricultureCorvallisUSA

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