Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 127, Issue 2, pp 433–442 | Cite as

Direct somatic embryogenesis and encapsulation of somatic embryos for in vitro conservation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst

  • Barkha Khilwani
  • Amanpreet Kaur
  • Ritika Ranjan
  • Anil Kumar
Original Article


Direct somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis were achieved from leaf explants excised from microshoots of Bacopa monnieri cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The maximum frequency of explants differentiated somatic embryos and shoot buds on MS medium supplemented with 12.5 µM BA and 1 µM 2,4-D. The frequency of explants differentiating somatic embryos decreased with increasing concentration of 2,4-D. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed direct differentiation of somatic embryos and shoot buds from explants, and various developmental stages of the somatic embryos were observed. Somatic embryos and apical shoot tips were encapsulated in sodium alginate gel to produce synthetic seeds. The storage of synthetic seeds produced by encapsulation was studied at 4 and 25 °C (room temperature) for a period of 140 days. Encapsulated somatic embryos were found to retain viability after 140 days of storage at both temperatures, whereas encapsulated apical shoot buds failed to germinate even after 40 days when stored at 4 °C. The viability of synthetic seeds was higher when stored at 25 °C. All amplified markers scored by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were monomorphic for all the plants produced from synthetic seeds following different periods of storage, thus establishing the clonal fidelity of propagated plantlets.


Apical shoot tips Brahmi Clonal fidelity ISSR RAPD Storage temperature 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barkha Khilwani
    • 1
  • Amanpreet Kaur
    • 1
  • Ritika Ranjan
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, TIFAC-CORE BuildingThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

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