Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 127, Issue 2, pp 369–380 | Cite as

Immunogenicity of an S1D epitope from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and cholera toxin B subunit fusion protein transiently expressed in infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves

  • Nguyen-Xuan Huy
  • Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien
  • Mi-Young Kim
  • Tae-Geum Kim
  • Yong-Suk Jang
  • Moon-Sik Yang
Original Article


Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family and causes acute enteritis in pigs. A fragment of the large spike glycoprotein, termed the S1D epitope (aa 636–789), alone and fused with cholera toxin B subunit, were independently cloned into plant expression vectors, yielding plasmids pMYV717 and pMYV719, respectively. Plant expression vectors were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens and subsequently infiltrated into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The highest expression level of S1D was found at 2 days post infiltration (dpi), reached 0.04 % of total soluble protein, and rapidly decreased thereafter. The expression and assembly of CTB–S1D fusion protein were confirmed by Western blot and GM1-ELISA. The highest expression level of CTB–S1D fusion protein was 0.07 % of TSP at 4 dpi, with a rapid decrease thereafter. In the presence of p19 protein from tomato bushy stunt virus, the S1D and CTB–S1D protein levels peaked at 6 dpi and were fourfold to sevenfold higher than in the absence of p19, respectively. After oral administration of transiently expressed CTB–S1D fusion protein, or with bacterial cholera toxin or rice callus expressing mutant cholera toxin 61F, mice exhibited significantly greater serum IgG and sIgA levels against bacterial CTB and S1D antigen, peaking at week 6. Transiently expressed CTB–S1D fusion protein will be administered orally to pigs to assess the immune response against PEDV.


Edible vaccine Agroinfiltration Cholera toxin PEDV S1D 



This research was supported by the Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Research Center Support Program, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, and Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien was supported by the BK21 plus program, Republic of Korea.

Author contributions

Nguyen-Xuan Huy, Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien and Moon-Sik Yang conceived, designed and performed the overall study. Mi-Young Kim generated the transformed rice callus expressing mutant cholera toxin 61F. Tae-Geum Kim and Yong-Suk Jang designed the mouse experiment. Nguyen-Xuan Huy wrote the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen-Xuan Huy
    • 1
    • 5
  • Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien
    • 2
  • Mi-Young Kim
    • 1
  • Tae-Geum Kim
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yong-Suk Jang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Moon-Sik Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Bioactive Material ScienceChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Research Center of Bioactive MaterialsChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Center for Jeongup Industry-Academy-Institute CooperationChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Biology DepartmentHue University of EducationHueVietnam

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