In vitro induction and characterization of tetraploid Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) plant

Original Article


Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) is one kind of plant from Indonesia which is producing oil. In vitro induction of tetraploid in Patchouli plant and cytological and morphological characterization were conducted. Induced polyploidy was done by culturing leaf explant on MS medium added with a varying concentration of colchicine. It was observed that colchicine on MS medium mostly affect to growth of explant and shoot regeneration. Tetraploid plants were determined by observation of chromosome number. The tetraploid plants have chromosome number (2n = 4x = 128), twice higher than those of diploid plants (2n = 2x = 64). The tetraploid plants exhibited much larger stomata size but less than diploid plants. The tetraploid plants also showed more glandular hairs than diploid plants. Significant different in morphological characters between the diploid and tetraploid plants were noted. Leaf size and stem diameter of the tetraploids plant are larger than the diploid plants. In this study, the tetraploids Patchouli have a promising potential as a superior variety.


Pogostemon cablin Benth. Tetraploid Colchicine Chromosome Stomata 


  1. Blasco M, Badenes MA, Naval MDM (2015) Colchicine-induced polyploidy in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 120:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caperta AD, Delgado M, Ressurreicao F, Meister A, Jones RN, Viegas W, Houben A (2012) Colchicine-induced polyploidization depends on tubulin polymerization in c-metaphase cells. Protoplasma 227:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chakraborti SP, Vijayan K, Roy BN, Quari SMH (1998) In vitro induction of tetraploidi mulberry. Plant Cell Rep 17:799–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen LP, Wang YJ, Zhao M (2006) In vitro induction and characterization of tetraploid Lychnis senno Siebold et Zucc. HortScience 41:759–761Google Scholar
  5. Cheng ZH, Zhou XJ, Khan MA, Su L, Meng HW (2012) In vitro induction of tetraploid garlic with trifluralin. Genet Mol Res 11:2620–2628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. De Jesus-Gonzales L, Weather PJ (2003) Tetraploid Artemisia annua hairy roots produce more artemisinin than diploids. Plant Cell Rep 21:809–813Google Scholar
  7. Donelian A, Carlson LHC, Lopes TJ, Machado RAF (2009) Comparison of extraction of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) essential oil with supercritical CO2 and by steam distillation. J Supercrit Fluid 48:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gao SL, Zhu DN, Cai ZH, Xu DR (1996) Autotetraploid plants from colchicine-treated bud culture of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 47:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghani A, Neamati SH, Azizi M, Saharkhiz MJ, Farsi M (2014) Artificial autotetraploidy induction possibility of two Iranian EndemicMint (Mentha mozaffarianii) ecotypes. Not Sci Biol 6:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang HP, Gao SL, Chen LL, Wei KH (2010) In vitro tetraploid induction and generation of tetraploids from mixoploidy in Dioscorea zingiberensis. Pharmacogn Mag 6:51–56CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones JR, Ranney TG, Eaker TA (2008) A novel method for inducing polyploidy in rhododendron seedlings. J Am Rhododendron Soc 62:130–135Google Scholar
  12. Kerdsuwan N, Te-chato S (2012) Effects of colchicine on survival rate, morphological, physiological and cytological character of Chang Daeng orchid (Rhynchostylis gigantean var. rubrum Sagarik) in vitro. J Agric Technol 8:1451–1460Google Scholar
  13. Maeda E, Miyake H (1997) Leaf anatomy of patchouli (Pogostemon patchouli) with reference to the disposition of mesophyll glands. Jpn J Crop Sci 66:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maruska A, Proscevicius J, Bimbiraite-Surviliene K, Kornysova O, Ragazinskiene O, Ratautaite V (2010) Comparison of phytochemical composition of medicinal plants by means of chromatographic and related techniques. Procedia Chem 2:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio-assays for tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant Int J Plant Biol 15:473–497Google Scholar
  16. Nilanthi D, Chen XL, Zhao FC, Yang YS, Wu H (2009) Induction of tetraploids from petiole explants through colchicine treatments in Echinacea purpurea L. J Biomed Biotechnol 2009:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Omidbaigi R, Mirzaee M, Hassani ME, Sedghi Moghadamc M (2010) Induction and identification of polyploidy in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) medicinal plant by colchicine treatment. IJPP 4:1735–6814Google Scholar
  18. Pande S, Khetmalas M (2012) Biological effect of sodium azide and colchicine on seed germination and callus induction in Stevia rebaudiana. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 3:93–98Google Scholar
  19. Petersen KK, Hagberg P, Kristiansek K (2003) Colchicine and oryzalin mediated chromosome doubling in different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 73:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Piromya R, Kermanee P (2013) Occurrence of tetraploidy in colchicine-treated physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.). J Nat Sci 47:23–29Google Scholar
  21. Sajjad Y, Jaskani MJ, Mehmood A, Ahmad I, Abbas H (2013) Effect of colchicine on in vitro polyploidy induction in African marigold (Tagetes erecta). Pak J Bot 45:1255–1258Google Scholar
  22. Saradhuldhat P, Silayai B (2001) Some chemical treatments on Kluai Khai through tissue culture for mutation breeding. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 35:231–241Google Scholar
  23. Shi H, Yu W, Zhang G, Tsang PE, Chow CF (2014) Induction of polyploid hairy roots and its plant regeneration in Pogostemon cablin. Chin J Biotechnol 30(8):1235–1246Google Scholar
  24. Silva PAKXM, Jacques SC, Zanettini MHB (2000) Induction and identification of polyploids in Cattleya intermedia Lindl. (Orchidaceae) Atraves de Technicas in vitro. Cienc Rural Santa Maria 3:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Song C, Liu SJ, Xiao J, He WG, Zhou Y, Qin QB, Zhang C, Liu Y (2012) Polyploid organisms. Sci China Life Sci 55:301–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Sun Q, Sun H, Li L, Bell RL (2009) In vitro colchicine-induced polyploid plantlet production and regeneration from leaf explants of the diploid pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar, ‘Fertility’. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 84:548–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tulay E, Unal M (2010) Production of colchicine induced tetraploids in Vicia villosa roth. Caryologia 63:292–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wu Y, Li M (2013) Induction of tetraploid plants of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) and its quality evaluation. Pharmacogn J 5(6):281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zeng SH, Chen CW, Liu H, Liu JH, Deng XX (2006) In vitro induction, regeneration and analysis of autotetraploids derived from protoplasts and callus treated with colchicine in Citrus. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 87:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Tissue Culture, Department of BiologyUniversity of BrawijayaMalangIndonesia

Personalised recommendations