Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 124, Issue 3, pp 621–633 | Cite as

Characterization of apple NADPH oxidase genes and their expression associated with oxidative stress in shoot culture in vitro

  • Darius Cepauskas
  • Inga Miliute
  • Grazina Staniene
  • Dalia Gelvonauskiene
  • Vidmantas Stanys
  • Algirdas J. Jesaitis
  • Danas BaniulisEmail author
Original Article


Genes encoding Rboh (respiratory burst oxidase homolog) have been described in a variety of plant species. Transcriptional regulation of rboh genes has been shown during plant response to stress or phytohormone treatment. In vitro conditions often induce plant stress that leads to slow plant growth, early senescence, or even recalcitrance to in vitro growth. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important manifestation of plant environmental stress. Expression of rboh orthologs in plant tissues grown under in vitro conditions and their role in response to abiotic stress is not fully understood. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify rboh homologues in apple (Mdrboh) and to characterize their expression during the senescence of apple shoot culture in vitro. Similarity searches using Arabidopsis Rboh (AtRboh) protein sequences revealed nine homologous rboh genes in the apple genome. Phylogenetic analysis using conservative N-terminal half region sequences of the apple, Arabidopsis, pear, peach and wild strawberry Rboh proteins revealed four groups of related sequences that were linked to AtRboh D, E, F and H. A homologue with unique sequence was annotated as Rboh K in plants of the Rosaceae family. Expression of MdrbohD13 and F was detected in apple leaves, in vitro cultures of shoots and cell suspension, and MdrbohE2 and H12 varied among the tissues. The MdrbohD12 and F genes were differentially expressed during transfer, growth and senescence stages of apple in vitro shoot culture having varying levels of oxidative stress damage, suggesting transcriptional regulation of the Mdrboh genes in the apple shoot culture, and a potential for distinctive functions of the three Rboh D orthologs.


Malus × domestica Rboh Oxidative stress In vitro propagation 





Fresh weight




Respiratory burst oxidase homolog


Reactive oxygen species




Hydrogen peroxide


Standard error of the mean


Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances



This research was funded by the Lithuanian Research Council Grant No. MIP-47/2013.

Authors’ contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AJJ, DB, VS. Performed the experiments: DC, DG, GS, IM. Analyzed the data: DB, DC, IM. Wrote the paper: AJJ, DB, DC, IM, VS. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Supplementary material

11240_2015_920_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1056 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darius Cepauskas
    • 1
  • Inga Miliute
    • 1
  • Grazina Staniene
    • 1
  • Dalia Gelvonauskiene
    • 1
  • Vidmantas Stanys
    • 1
  • Algirdas J. Jesaitis
    • 2
  • Danas Baniulis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of HorticultureLithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryBabtai, KaunasLithuania
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA

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