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Production of chrysanthemum synthetic seeds under non-aseptic conditions for direct transfer to commercial greenhouses

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A novel protocol for both production and sowing of chrysanthemum synthetic seeds in non-aseptic conditions for large-scale commercialization was successfully established. Effects of the availability of organic compounds, namely MS vitamins and sucrose, inside and outside gelling matrix on the microbial contaminations, plantlet formation and subsequent growth were investigated. Results showed that the presence of organic compounds, either in gelling matrix alone or in both gelling matrix and commercial substrate, caused microbial contaminations in all synthetic seeds and complete inhibition in regrowth. In contrast, the absence of organic compounds in both non-sterile gelling matrix and substrate resulted in 70 % plantlet formation after 6 weeks of sowing. However, organic compounds absent in gelling matrix but present in substrate induced lower plantlet formation frequency (34 %) after 6-week sowing. The removal of organic compounds from both gelling matrix and substrate, in comparison with the removal from only gelling matrix, also stimulated the formation of plantlets having more leaves, longer shoots and roots, and greater fresh and dry biomass accumulation, but equal leaf area, chlorophyll content, and number of nodes and roots. These findings suggest that the eradication of all organic compositions is a prerequisite for practical application of encapsulation technology to the mass production of chrysanthemum plants.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2



Analysis of variance


Dihydrate calcium chloride


Duncan’s multiple range test


Murashige and Skoog (1962)



OCfree :

Both artificial endosperm and vermiculite substrate were free of sucrose and MS vitamins

OCseed :

Only artificial endosperm contained 3 % sucrose and MS vitamins

OCseed+soil :

Both artificial endosperm and vermiculite substrate contained 3 % sucrose and MS vitamins

OCsoil :

Only vermiculite substrate contained 3 % sucrose and MS vitamins


Special products analysis division


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This work was funded by the Korea Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy under the Industrial Technology Research Program (No. N0000004), and by Cao Dinh Chay and Cao Thi Yen through CDH’s postdoctoral research project conducted at the LED Agri-Bio Fusion Technology Research Center of the Chonbuk National University, Iksan, South Korea.

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The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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Correspondence to Cao Dinh Hung.

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Cao Dinh Hung and Cao Dinh Dung have contributed equally to this article.

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Hung, C.D., Dung, C.D. Production of chrysanthemum synthetic seeds under non-aseptic conditions for direct transfer to commercial greenhouses. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 122, 639–648 (2015).

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  • Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum
  • Contamination
  • Encapsulation
  • Plantlet conversion
  • Plantlet growth
  • Practical application