Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 118, Issue 2, pp 245–256 | Cite as

How does exogenously applied cytokinin type affect growth and endogenous cytokinins in micropropagated Merwilla plumbea?

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
  • Lenka Plačková
  • Michael W. Bairu
  • Ondřej Novák
  • Lucie Plíhalová
  • Karel Doležal
  • Jeffrey F. Finnie
  • Johannes Van Staden
Original Paper

Abstract

Merwilla plumbea (Lindl.) Speta is a popular and highly sought after South African medicinal plant with diverse therapeutic values. Using Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), the effect of five cytokinins (CKs) [either isoprenoid = N6-isopentenyladenine (iP) or aromatic = benzyladenine, meta-topolin (mT), meta-topolin riboside (mTR), and 6-(3-methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine] MemTTHP on growth and level of endogenous CKs during micropropagation and acclimatization stages was evaluated. Aromatic CK (mT/mTR) elicited the highest shoot proliferation (7–8 shoots per explant) during in vitro culture. Following acclimatization, iP-treated and the control plants were healthier with longer leaves, roots and higher fresh weight when compared to aromatic CKs. A total of 37 (22 isoprenoid and 15 aromatic) CK variants were quantified in both in vitro and acclimatized plants. Based on their metabolic function, these were grouped into five types including free bases, ribosides, ribotides, O- and 9-glucosides. In addition to enhancing our understanding of the hormone physiology in M. plumbea, the current findings are discussed in line with the effect of the exogenously applied CK on the observed differences in growth before and after the important stage of acclimatization. The observed dynamics in endogenous CK provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro growth and development of investigated species.

Keywords

Conservation Medicinal plant Micropropagation Phytohormones Plant growth regulators 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

BA

N6-Benzyladenine

BA9G

N6-Benzyladenine-9-glucoside

BAR

N6-Benzyladenine riboside

BAR5′MP

N6-Benzyladenosine-5′-monophosphate

CK

Cytokinin

cZ

cis-Zeatin

cZ9G

cis-Zeatin-9-glucoside

cZOG

cis-Zeatin-O-glucoside

cZR

cis-Zeatin riboside

cZR5′MP

cis-Zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

cZROG

cis-Zeatin-O-glucoside riboside

DHZ

Dihydrozeatin

DHZ9G

Dihydrozeatin-9-glucoside

DHZOG

Dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside

DHZR

Dihydrozeatin riboside

DHZR5′MP

Dihydrozeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

DHZROG

Dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside riboside

iP

N6-Isopentenyladenine

iP9G

N6-Isopentenyladenine-9-glucoside

iPR

N6-Isopentenyladenosine

iPR5′MP

N6-Isopentenyladenosine-5′-monophosphate

KIN

Kinetin

KIN9G

Kinetin-9-glucoside

KINR

Kinetin riboside

MemT

meta-Methoxy topolin

MemTTHP

6-(3-Methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine

MS

Murashige and Skoog medium

mT

meta-Topolin

mT9G

meta-Topolin-9-glucoside

mTR

meta-Topolin riboside

oT

ortho-Topolin

oTOG

ortho-Topolin-O-glucoside

oTR

ortho-Topolin riboside

PGR

Plant growth regulator

PPF

Photosynthetic photon flux density

pT

para-Topolin

pTOG

para-Topolin-O-glucoside

tZ

trans-Zeatin

tZ9G

trans-Zeatin-9-glucoside

tZOG

trans-Zeatin-O-glucoside

tZR

trans-Zeatin riboside

tZR5′MP

trans-Zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

tZROG

trans-Zeatin-O-glucoside riboside

UPLC

Ultra performance liquid chromatography

Supplementary material

11240_2014_477_MOESM1_ESM.xls (112 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 112 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
    • 1
  • Lenka Plačková
    • 2
  • Michael W. Bairu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ondřej Novák
    • 2
  • Lucie Plíhalová
    • 2
  • Karel Doležal
    • 2
  • Jeffrey F. Finnie
    • 1
  • Johannes Van Staden
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalPietermaritzburg, ScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of SciencePalacký University and Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of Czech RepublicOlomouc-HoliceCzech Republic
  3. 3.Institute for Commercial Forestry ResearchPietermaritzburg, ScottsvilleSouth Africa

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