Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 116, Issue 1, pp 81–88 | Cite as

Production and molecular characterization of diploid and tetraploid somatic cybrid plants between male sterile Satsuma mandarin and seedy sweet orange cultivars

  • Shi-Xin Xiao
  • Manosh Kumar Biswas
  • Meng-Ya Li
  • Xiu-Xin Deng
  • Qiang Xu
  • Wen-Wu Guo
Original Paper


Seedlessness, an important economic trait for fresh fruit, is among the prior goal for all citrus breeding programs. Symmetric somatic hybridization provides a new strategy for citrus seedless breeding by creating cybrids transferring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) controlled cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from the callus parent Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) to seedy cultivars. In this study, protoplast fusion was adopted to transfer CMS from C. unshiu Marc. cv. Guoqing No. 1 (G1) to three seedy sweet oranges (C. sinensis L. Osb.), i.e. ‘Early gold’, ‘Taoye’ and ‘Hongjiang’. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 12 of 13 regenerated plants from G1 + ‘Early gold’, 9 of 12 from G1 + ‘Taoye’ and both two plants from G1 + ‘Hongjiang’ were diploids, while the remaining regenerated plants were tetraploids. Molecular analysis using 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers previously proven to map to the citrus genome showed that the nuclear DNA from all recovered diploid and tetraploid plants derived from their corresponding leaf parent, while cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis showed that the mtDNA of all regenerated plants derived from the callus parent, indicating that the regenerated 2X and 4X plants from all these three combinations are authentic cybrids. Furthermore, the Chloroplast SSR analysis revealed that somatic cybrid plants from the three combinations possessed either of their parental chloroplast type in most cases. These results demonstrated that mtDNA of G1 Satsuma mandarin was successfully introduced into the three seedy sweet orange cultivars for potential seedlessness via symmetric fusion.


Citrus Cytoplasmic male sterility Molecular markers Protoplast fusion Seedlessness Somatic cybrid 



Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence


Cytoplasmic male sterility


Chloroplast simple sequence repeat




C. unshiu Marc. cv. Guoqing No. 1


Mitochondrial DNA


Simple sequence repeat



This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Science & Technology of China (nos. 2011CB100606, 2011AA100205), the National NSF of China (nos. 31125024, 31221062), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2013PY045).

Supplementary material

11240_2013_384_MOESM1_ESM.doc (54 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 54 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shi-Xin Xiao
    • 1
  • Manosh Kumar Biswas
    • 1
  • Meng-Ya Li
    • 1
  • Xiu-Xin Deng
    • 1
  • Qiang Xu
    • 1
  • Wen-Wu Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education)Huazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina

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