Effects of plant growth regulators and elicitors on production of secondary metabolites in shoot cultures of Hypericum hirsutum and Hypericum maculatum
We investigated the effects of plant growth regulators [6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin), 6-γ,γ-dimethylallylaminopurine (2iP), thidiazuron (TDZ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)], modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 10 mM NH4 + and 5 mM NO3 − and supplemented with 2iP, BA, Kin and NAA (MSM medium), and two elicitors [jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA)], on plant growth and accumulation of hypericins (hypericin and pseudohypericin) and hyperforin in shoot cultures of Hypericum hirsutum and H. maculatum. Our data suggested that culture of shoots on MS medium supplemented with BA (0.4 mg l−1) or Kin (0.4 mg l−1) enhanced production of hypericins in H. maculatum and hyperforin in H. hirsutum. Hypericins and hyperforin concentrations decreased in both species when TDZ (0.4 mg l−1) was added to the MS medium. Also, TDZ induced hyperhydric malformations and necrosis of regenerated shoots. Cultivation of H. maculatum on MSM medium resulted in approximately twofold increased production of hypericins compared to controls, and the growth of H. hirsutum shoots on the same medium led to a 6.16-fold increase in hyperforin production. Of the two elicitors, SA was more effective in stimulating the accumulation of hypericins. At 50 μM, SA enhanced the production of hypericin (7.98-fold) and pseudohypericin (13.58-fold) in H. hirsutum, and, at 200 μM, enhanced the production of hypericin (2.2-fold) and pseudohypericin (3.94-fold) in H. maculatum.
KeywordsPlant growth regulators Elicitors Hypericin Pseudohypericin Hyperforin
This study has been supported by a research project (Nr. 61005/2007) from the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research and the National Centre for Programme Management. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of Dr. Eng. Dragos Postolache from the Forest Genetics Group of ICAS Simeria, Romania, in processing the statistical data.
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