Advertisement

Development and application of photoautotrophic micropropagation plant system

  • Yulan Xiao
  • Genhua Niu
  • Toyoki Kozai
Review

Abstract

Research has revealed that most chlorophyllous explants/plants in vitro have the ability to grow photoautotrophically (without sugar in the culture medium), and that the low or negative net photosynthetic rate of plants in vitro is not due to poor photosynthetic ability, but to the low CO2 concentration in the air-tight culture vessel during the photoperiod. Moreover, numerous studies have been conducted on improving the in vitro environment and investigating its effects on growth and development of cultures/plantlets on nearly 50 species since the concept of photoautotrophic micropropagation was developed more than two decades ago. These studies indicate that the photoautotrophic growth in vitro of many plant species can be significantly promoted by increasing the CO2 concentration and light intensity in the vessel, by decreasing the relative humidity in the vessel, and by using a fibrous or porous supporting material with high air porosity instead of gelling agents such as agar. This paper reviews the development and characteristics of photoautotrophic micropropagation systems and the effects of environmental conditions on the growth and development of the plantlets. The commercial applications and the perspective of photoautotrophic micropropagation systems are discussed.

Keywords

Environmental control Photosynthesis CO2 enrichment Natural ventilation Forced ventilation Supporting materials Culture vessel 

References

  1. Afreen F, Zobayed SMA, Kozai T (2001) Mass-propagation of coffee from photoautotrophic somatic embryos. In: Morohoshi N, Komamine A (eds) Molecular breeding of woody plants. Elsevier Science B.V, The Netherlands, pp 355–364Google Scholar
  2. Afreen-Zobayed F, Zobayed SMA, Kubota C, Kozai T (1999) Supporting material affects the growth and development of in vitro sweet potato plantlets cultured photoautotrophically. In Vitro Cell Dev Plant 35:470–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aitken-Christie J, Kozai T, Smith MAL (eds) (1995) Automation and environmental control in plant tissue culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 574Google Scholar
  4. Arigita L, González A, Sánchez Tamés R (2002) Influence of CO2 and sucrose on photosynthesis and transpiration of Actidinia deliciosa explants cultured in vitro. Physiol Plant 115:166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Couceiro MA, Afreen F, Zobayed SMA, Kozai T (2006) Enhanced growth and quality of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) under photoautotrophic in vitro conditions. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 42:278–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cui YY, Hahn EJ, Kozai T, Paek KY (2000) Number of air exchanges, sucrose concentration, photosynthetic photon flux, and differences in photoperiod and dark period temperatures affect growth of Rehmannia glutinosa plantlets in vitro. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 62:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DaSilva T, Giang DDT, Tanaka M (2006) Photoautotrophic micropropagation of Spathiphyllum. Photosynthetica 44:53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Debergh PC, Maene LJ (1981) A scheme for commercial propagation of ornamental plants by tissue culture. Sci Hort 14:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ermayanti TM, Imelda M, Tajuddin T, Kubota C, Kozai T (1999) Growth promotion by controlling the in vitro environment in the micropropagation of tropical plant species. In: Proceedings of international workshop on conservation and sustainable use of tropical bioresources, Nov 9–10, Tokyo, Japan, pp 10–25Google Scholar
  10. Fujiwara K, Kozai T (1995) Physical microenvironment and its effects. In: Aitken-Christie J, Kozai T, Smith MAL (eds) Automation and environmental control in plant tissue culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 319–369Google Scholar
  11. Fujiwara K, Kozai T, Watanabe I (1987) Measurements of carbon dioxide gas concentration in closed vessels containing tissue cultured plantlets and estimates of net photosynthetic rates of the plantlets. J Agr Met 43:21–30Google Scholar
  12. Fujiwara K, Kozai T, Watanabe I (1988) Development of a photoautotrophic tissue culture system for shoots and/or plantlets at rooting and acclimatization stages. Acta Hort 230:153–158Google Scholar
  13. Heo J, Kozai T (1999) Forced ventilation micropropagation system for enhancing photosynthesis, growth and development of sweet potato plantlets. Environ Control Biol 37:83–92Google Scholar
  14. Heo J, Wilson SB, Kozai T (2001) A forced ventilation micropropagation system for production of photoautotrophic sweetpotato plug plantlets in a scaled-up culture vessel, I. Growth and uniformity. Hort Technol 11:90–94Google Scholar
  15. Houllou-Kido LM, Silva KS, Rivas R, Dias ALF, Alves GD (2009) Viability of Noppalea cochenilifera (cv. IPA Sertania) photoautotrophic micropropagation. Acta Hort 811:309–313Google Scholar
  16. Jeong BR, Fujiwara K, Kozai T (1995) Environmental control and photoautotrophic micropropagation. Hort Rev 17:125–172Google Scholar
  17. Kirdmanee C, Kitaya Y, Kozai T (1995a) Effects of CO2 enrichment and supporting material on photoautotrophic growth of Eucalyptus plantlets in vitro and ex vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 31:144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kirdmanee C, Kitaya Y, Kozai T (1995b) Effects of CO2 enrichment and supporting material on growth, photosynthesis and water potential of Eucalyptus shoots/plantlets cultured photoautotrophically in vitro. Environ Control Biol 33:133–141Google Scholar
  19. Kirdmanee C, Kitaya Y, Kozai T (1995c) Rapid acclimatization of eucalyptus plantlets by controlling photosynthetic photon flux density and relative humidity. Environ Control Biol 33:123–132Google Scholar
  20. Kitaya Y, Ohmura Y, Kubota C, Kozai T (2005) Manipulation of the culture environment on in vitro air movement and its impact on plantlets photosynthesis. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 83:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kool LT, Keng CL, Toe CTK (1999) In vitro rooting of Sentang shoots (Azadirachta excelsa L.) and acclimatization of the plantlets. In vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 35:396–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kozai T (1991) Photoautotrophic micropropagation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 27:47–51Google Scholar
  23. Kozai T (1998) Transplant production under artificial light in closed systems. In: Lu HY, Sung JM, Kao CH (eds.) Proceedings of 3rd Asian crop science conference, Taichung, Taiwan, pp 296–308Google Scholar
  24. Kozai T (2007) Propagation, grafting and transplant production in closed systems with artificial lighting for commercialization in Japan. Propagat Ornament Plants 7:145–149Google Scholar
  25. Kozai T, Iwanami Y (1988) Effects of CO2 enrichment and sucrose concentration under high photon fluxes on plantlet growth of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.,) in tissue culture during the preparation stage. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 57:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kozai T, Kubota C (2001) Development a photoautotrophic micropropagation system for woody plants. J Plant Res 114:525–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kozai T, Kubota C (2005) Concepts, definitions, ventilation methods, advantages and disadvantages. In: Kozai T, Afreen F, Zobayed SMA (eds) Photoautotrophic (sugar-free medium) micropropagation as a new propagation and transplant production system. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kozai T, Sekimoto K (1988) Effects of number of air exchanges per hour of the closed vessel and the photosynthetic photon flux on the carbon dioxide concentration inside the vessel and growth of strawberry plantlets in vitro (in Japanese). Environ Control Biol 26:21–29Google Scholar
  29. Kozai T, Xiao Y (2005) A commercialized photoautotrophic micropropagation system. In: Gupta S, Ibaraki Y (eds) Plant tissue culture engineering. Berlin, Springer, pp 355–371Google Scholar
  30. Kozai T, Koyama Y, Watanabe I (1988) Multiplication and rooting of potato plantlets in vitro with sugar medium under high photosynthetic photon flux. Acta Hort 230:121–127Google Scholar
  31. Kozai T, Kubota C, Heo J, Chun C, Ohyama K, Niu G, Mikami H (1998) Towards efficient vegetative propagation and transplant production of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) under artificial light in closed systems. In: Proceedings of international workshop on sweetpotato production system toward 21st Century, Miyazaki, Japan, pp 201–214Google Scholar
  32. Kozai T, Chun C, Afreen F, Ohyama K (2000) Necessity and concept of the closed transplant production system. In: Kubota C, Chun C (eds) Transplant production in the 21st century. Kluwer Academic publishers, Dordrecht, pp 3–19Google Scholar
  33. Kozai T, Afreen F, Zobayed SMA (2005) Photoautotrophic (sugar-free medium) micropropagation as a new propagation and transplant production system. Springer, Dordrecht, p 315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kubota C, Chun C (eds) (2000) Transplant production in the 21st century. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  35. Kubota C, Kozai T (1992) Growth and Net photosynthetic rate of solanum tuberosum in vitro under forced ventilation. Hort Sci 27:312–1314Google Scholar
  36. Kubota C, Afreen F, Zobayed SMA (2005) Plant species successfully micropropagated photoautotrophically. In: Kozai T, Afreen F, Zobayed SMA (eds) Photoautotrophic (sugar-free medium) micropropagation as a new propagation and transplant production system. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 243–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kurata K, Kozai T (1992) Transplant production systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  38. Liao F, Wang B, Zhang M, Xu F, Lian F (2007) Response to sucrose-free culture and diffusive ventilation of plantlets in vitro of Gerbera jamesonii and photoautotrophic growth potential. Acta Hort 764:257–264Google Scholar
  39. Liu W, Yang Q (2008) Integration of mycorrhization and photoautotrophic micropropagation in vitro: feasibility analysis for mass production of mycorrhizal transplants and inoculants of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 95:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lovato P, Guillemin JP, Gianinazzi S (1996) Application of commercial abuscular endomycorrhizal fungal inoculants to the establishment of micropropagated grapevine root-stock and pineapple plants. Agronomie 12:673–880Google Scholar
  41. Lucchesini M, Mensuali-Sodi A, Massai R, Gucci R (2001) Development of autotrophy and tolerance to acclimatization of Myrtus communis transplants cultured in vitro under different aeration. Biol Plant 44:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lucchesini M, Monteforti G, Mensuali-Sodi A, Serra G (2006) Leaf ultrastructure, photosynthetic rate and growth of myrtle plantlets under different in vitro culture conditions. Plant Biol 50:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Majada JP, Fall MA, Tadeo F, Sànchez-Tamés R (2002) Effects of natural ventilation on leaf ultrastructure of Dianthus caryophyllus L. cultured in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 38:272–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mosaleeyanon K, Zobayed SMA, Afreen F, Kozai T (2005) Relationships between net photosynthetic rate and secondary metabolite contents in St. Jon’s wort. Plant Sci 169:523–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nagae S, Takamura T, Watanabe T, Murakami A, Murakami K, Tanaka M (1996) In vitro shoot development of Eucalyptus citriodora on rockwool in the film culture vessel under CO2 enrichment. J For Res 1:227–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nguyen QT, Kozai T (2001) Growth of In Vitro Banana (Musa SPP.) shoots under photomixotrophic and photoautotrophic conditions. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:824–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nguyen TQ, Kozai T, Nguyen KL, Nguyen UV (1999a) Effects of sucrose concentration, supporting material and number of air exchanges of the vessel on the growth of in vitro coffee plantlets. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 58:51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nguyen TQ, Kozai T, Niu G, Nguyen UV (1999b) Photosynthetic characteristics of coffee (Coffea arabusta) plantlets in vitro in response to different CO2 concentrations and light intensities. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 55:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nguyen QT, Kozai T, Heo J, Thai DX (2001) Photoautotrophic growth response of in vitro cultured coffee plantlets to ventilation methods and photosynthetic photon fluxes under carbon dioxide enriched conditions. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 66:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nhut DT, Hong ITA, Watanabe H, Goi M, Tanaka M (2002) In vitro growth of banana plantlets cultured under red and blue light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation source. Acta Hort 575:117–123Google Scholar
  51. Nhut DT, Takamura T, Watanabe H, Okamoto K, Tanaka M (2003) Responses of strawberry plantlets cultured in vitro under super bright red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 73:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nishimura M, Kozai T, Kubota C, Chun C (2001) Analysis of electric energy consumption and its cost for a closed-type transplant production system. SHITA J 13:204–209Google Scholar
  53. Niu G, Kozai T (1997) Simulation of the growth of potato plantlets cultured photoautotrophically in vitro. Trans ASAE 40:255–260Google Scholar
  54. Niu G, Kozai T, Kitaya Y (1996) Simulation of the time courses of CO2 concentration in the culture vessel and net photosynthetic rate of Cymbidium plantlets. Trans ASAE 39:1567–1573Google Scholar
  55. Niu G, Kozai T, Hayashi M, Tateno M (1997) Simulation of the time courses of CO2 concentration in the culture vessel and net photosynthetic rate of potato plantlets cultured photoautotrophically and photomixotrophically in vitro under different lighting cycles. Trans ASAE 40:1711–1718Google Scholar
  56. Ohyama K, Kozai T (1998) Estimating electric energy consumption and its cost in a transplant production factory with artificial lighting: a case study. J High Technol Agri 10:96–107Google Scholar
  57. Pospisilova J, Solarova J, Catsky J, Ondrej M, Opatrny Z (1988) The photosynthetic characteristics during the micropropagation of tobacco and potato plants. Photosynthetica 22:205–213Google Scholar
  58. Roberts AV, Smith EF (1990) The preparation in vitro of chrysanthemum for transplantation to soil. I. Protection of roots by cellulose plugs. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 21:129–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Serret MD, Trillas MI, Matas J, Araus JL (1996) Development of photoautotrophy and photoinhibition of Gardenia jasminoides plantlets during micropropagation. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 45:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tanaka M, Nagae S, Fukai S, Goi M (1992) Growth of tissue cultured Spathiphyllum on rockwool in a novel film culture vessel under high CO2. Acta Hort 314:139–146Google Scholar
  61. Tanaka M, Goi M, Higashiura T (1998a) A novel disposable film culture vessel. Acta Hort 226:663–670Google Scholar
  62. Tanaka M, Jinno K, Goi M, Higashiura T (1998b) The use of disposable fluorocarbon polymer film culture vessel in micropropagation. Acta Hort 230:73–80Google Scholar
  63. Tanaka M, Dam TTG, Murakami A (2005) Application of a novel disposable film culture system to photoautotrophic micropropagation of Eucalyptus uro-grandis (Urophylia x grandis). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 41:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Valero-Aracama C, Wilson SB, Kane ME, Philman NL (2007) Influence of in vitro growth conditions on in vitro and ex vitro photosynthetic rates of easy- and difficult-to-acclimatize sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) genotypes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 43:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wilson SB, Heo J, Kubota C, Kozai T (2001) A forced ventilation micropropagation system for photoautotrophic production of sweetpotato plug plantlets in a scaled-up culture Vessel: II. Carbohydrate status. Hort Technol 11:95–99Google Scholar
  66. Xiao Y, Kozai T (2004) Commercial application of a photoautotrophic micropropagation system using large vessels with forced ventilation: plantlet growth and production cost. Hort Sci 39:1387–1391Google Scholar
  67. Xiao Y, Kozai T (2006) In vitro multiplication of statice plantlets using sugar-free media. Sci Hort 109:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Xiao Y, Lok Y, Kozai T (2003) Photoautotrophic growth of sugarcane in vitro as affected by photosynthetic photon flux and vessel air exchanges. In Vitro Cell Dev Plant 39:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Xiao Y, He L, Liu T, Yang Y (2005) Growth promotion of gerbera plantlets in large vessels by using photoautotrophic micropropagation system with forced ventilation. Propagat Ornament Plants 5:179–185Google Scholar
  70. Xiao Y, Zhang Y, Dang K, Wang D (2007) Growth and photosynthesis of Dendrobium candidum plantlets cultured photoautotrophically. Propagat Ornamental Plants 7:89–96Google Scholar
  71. Zhang M, Zhao D, Ma Z, Li X, Xiao Y (2009) Growth and photosynthethetic capability of Momordica grosvenori plantlets grown photoautotrophically in response to light intensity. Hort Sci 44:757–763Google Scholar
  72. Zobayed SMA, Kubota C, Kozai T (1999) Development of a forced ventilation micropropagation system for large-scale photoautotrophic culture and its utilization in sweet potato. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 34:350–355Google Scholar
  73. Zobayed SMA, Afreen F, Kubota C, Kozai T (2000a) Mass propagation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in a scaled-up vessel under in vitro photoautotrophic condition. Ann Bot 85:587–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zobayed SMA, Afreen F, Kubota C, Kozai T (2000b) Evolution of culture vessel for micropropagation: from test tube to culture room. In: Kubota C, Chun C (eds) Transplant production in the 21st century. Kluwer Academic publishers, Dordrecht, pp 3–19Google Scholar
  75. Zobayed SMA, Afreen F, Kozai T (2001) Physiology of eucalyptus plantlets cultured photoautotrophically under forced ventilation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:807–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zobayed SMA, Afreen F, Xiao Y, Kozai T (2004) Recent advancement in research on photoautotrophic micropropagation using large culture vessels with forced ventilation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 40:450–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life ScienceCapital Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Texas AgriLife Research Center at El Paso, Texas A&M SystemEl PasoUSA
  3. 3.Center for Environment, Health and Field SciencesChiba UniversityKashiwa cityJapan

Personalised recommendations