A comparative analysis of the development and quality of nursery plants derived from somatic embryogenesis and from seedlings for large-scale propagation of coffee (Coffea arabica L.)
- 486 Downloads
Plants of Coffea arabica L. derived via somatic embryogenesis, namely, somaclones, were evaluated with C. arabica seedlings grown in the nursery. At the time of their transfer to the nursery, somaclones of C. arabica cvs. Caturra and Costa Rica 95 (Catimor) were smaller and less vigorous than seedlings of the same cultivars. Following an initial slow growth for a period of 10 weeks, somaclones began to grow faster than seedlings until both groups of plants were equal in size at 21 weeks (entire duration of growth in the nursery). Comparisons of aerial and root systems of 30-cm long somaclones and seedlings of two cultivars revealed that plants of somaclones were more vigorous than seedlings, based on the higher number of leaves (13–16 vs. 9), larger leaf area (1060–1280 vs. 730–890 cm2), and greater dry weight of aerial organs (8.5–12 vs. 7.0–7.5 g). For cv. Caturra, the root dry weight of somaclones was significantly greater than that of seedlings (2.7 vs. 1.9 g) and was attributable to the large diameter roots (>0.5 mm). Analysis of 176,000 F1 hybrid somaclones revealed that these exhibited more heterogeneous growth than did the seedlings derived from zygotic embryos; moreover, there was a genotype effect. Almost 9–20% of somaclones required an additional 3–4 months of growth in the nursery, and 8–12% were culled for other undesirable horticultural attributes. Only 0.10–0.23% of somaclones displayed variant phenotypes. The observed somaclone vigor in the nursery was carried over to field performance as these plants were more precocious than seedlings and yielded coffee beans 1 year earlier than seedlings.
KeywordsEmbryo conversion Micropropagation Rubiaceae Somaclone
We are grateful to Patrick Caroll (CNRS, France) and Carlos Quirós (UCDAVIS, USA) for critically reviewing the manuscript. Andrea Menéndez-Yuffá wishes to thank the Consejo de Desarrollo Científico y Humanístico, Universidad Central de Venezuela for the fellowship.
- Ameha M (1983) Heterosis in crosses of indigenous coffee selected for yield and resistance to coffee berry disease. I. First breeding stage. Acta Hortic 140:155–161Google Scholar
- Attree SM, Moore D, Sawhney VK, Fowke LC (1991) Enhanced maturation and desiccation tolerance of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] somatic embryos: effects of a non-plamolysing water stress and abscisic acid. Ann Bot 68:519–525Google Scholar
- Etienne H, Solano W, Pereira A, Bertrand B, Berthouly M (1997) Coffee in vitro plantlet acclimatization protocol. Plantations Rech Dév 4:304–311Google Scholar
- Montes S (1982) Comportamiento en el vivero de plantulas de Coffea arabica L. variedad Caturra, obtenidas mediente el cultivo in Vitro de embriones. Cultivos Trop 1:93–100Google Scholar
- O’Neill GA, Russell JH, Hooge BD, Ott PK, Hawkins CBD (2005) Estimating gains from genetic tests of somatic emblings of interior spruce. For Genet 12:57–66Google Scholar
- Teisson C, Alvard D (1995) A new concept of plant in vitro cultivation liquid medium: temporary immersion. In: Terzi M et al (eds) Current issues in plant molecular and cellular biology. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 105–110Google Scholar
- Van der Vossen HAM, Walyaro DJ (1981) The coffee breeding programme in Kenya: a review of progress made since 1971 and plan of action for the coming years. Kenya Coffee 46:113–130Google Scholar