Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 251–267 | Cite as

The role of cytokinins in shoot organogenesis in apple

  • Katalin Magyar-TáboriEmail author
  • Judit Dobránszki
  • Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
  • Sean M. Bulley
  • Ildikó Hudák


Effective regeneration in vitro is a necessary precondition for the implementation of different biotechnological approaches in plant breeding. Numerous studies have reported on regeneration from apple somatic tissues, and organogenesis has been proved to be influenced by several factors including mother shoots (genotype, size, type, and age of explant), in vitro conditions (dark period, light intensity, and quality), and others (wounding, orientation of leaf explants). However, one of the most important factors before and during the regeneration process is the type and concentration of cytokinin applied. Thidiazuron and benzyladenine are the most frequently used cytokinins in the regeneration systems, but their efficiency depends on genotype and other factors. Other cytokinins (e.g., zeatin and kinetin) have also been tested in several experiments and they were found in general to be less active. The organogenic ability of explants can also be increased by a properly selected cytokinin pre-treatment. Cytokinins applied in the pre-treatments can influence the leaf structure, which in turn can alter the regeneration capacity of the leaf explant. Interactions between factors of pre-treatments (hormones, light, and culture conditions) and factors of the regeneration phase should be considered. This review brings into focus the role of different cytokinins during in vitro shoot development, discussing their effects on the histology of leaves developed in vitro, and how this affects the subsequent regeneration process.


Shoot regeneration Histology Morphogenic activity Malus sp. 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katalin Magyar-Tábori
    • 1
    Email author
  • Judit Dobránszki
    • 1
  • Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
    • 2
  • Sean M. Bulley
    • 3
  • Ildikó Hudák
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, Research and Innovation Centre, Centre of Agricultural Sciences and EngineeringUniversity of DebrecenNyíregyházaHungary
  2. 2.Faculty of Agriculture and Graduate School of AgricultureKagawa UniversityKagawa-kenJapan
  3. 3.The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research LimitedAucklandNew Zealand

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