In vitro regeneration and morphogenesis studies in common bean
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An efficient protocol for high frequency in vitro regeneration of multiple shoots and somatic embryos from the embryonic axis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was developed. Ten common bean cultivars representing a wide range of diversity among current commercial market classes were used for in vitro regeneration evaluation in our study. These cultivars were tested on 63 different media formulations consisting of combinations of cytokinins, namely benzyladenine (BA) and thidiazuron (TDZ) at concentration levels of 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg l−1 and auxin, namely naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at concentration levels of 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1.0 mg l−1. P. vulgaris cv. Olathe pinto bean performed the best producing over 20 multiple shoots per explant while cv. Condor black bean was the poorest with nine multiple shoots per explant. The optimum media for regeneration of multiple shoots was 4.4 mg l−1 Murashige and Skoog (MS) containing 2.5 mg l−1 BA and 0.1 mg l−1 IAA supplemented with 30 mg l−1 silver nitrate. Adventitious shoots and somatic embryos were regenerated on 4.4 mg l−1 MS medium containing 1 mg l−1 TDZ and 0.05 mg l−1 NAA supplemented with 30 mg l−1 silver nitrate or activated charcoal. Efficient and effective rooting of plantlets was achieved by dipping the cut end base of in vitro regenerated shoots in 1.0 mg l−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution and culturing on media containing 4.4 mg l−1 MS supplemented by 0.1 mg l−1 IAA, NAA or IBA.