Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC)

, Volume 99, Issue 2, pp 141–149 | Cite as

CDPK gene expression in somatic embryos of Panax ginseng expressing rolC

  • Konstantin V. Kiselev
  • Anna V. Turlenko
  • Yuri N. Zhuravlev
Original Paper


The 2c3 embryogenic culture was obtained as a result of transferring the rolC oncogene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes to the callus cells of Panax ginseng. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are known to play a role in the development of somatic embryos in the 2c3 cell culture. Ten CDPK genes with altered expressions in the 2c3 embryogenic cell culture have previously been described. In this study, the importance of the ginseng CDPK gene for stimulation of somatic embryogenesis was investigated. Frequency analysis of RT-PCR products and real-time PCR were used to analyze CDPK gene expression in the 2c3 callus at different stages of somatic embryo development. Our results suggest that members of the PgCDPK2d subfamily (PgCDPK2d, PgCDPK2ds, and PgCDPK2dL) play a role in the initialization and development of somatic embryos. It was also found that the kinase domain of these genes was subjected to insertion and deletion modifications. The observed transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing, RNA editing or nonsense-mediated mRNA decay) of the PgCDPK2d genes could contribute to the formation of somatic embryos initiated by the rolC oncogene.


Agrobacterium rhizogenes CDPK Genes rol Panax ginseng rolC Somatic embryogenesis 



Calcium-dependent protein kinases


Reverse transcription PCR



This work was supported by grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (06-04-48149-a), the President of Russia (MК-714.2008.4), the Far East Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (06-III-A-06-146), and the Russian Science Support Foundation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantin V. Kiselev
    • 1
  • Anna V. Turlenko
    • 1
  • Yuri N. Zhuravlev
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biotechnology, Institute of Biology and Soil ScienceFar East Branch of Russian Academy of SciencesVladivostokRussia

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