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CDPK gene expression in somatic embryos of Panax ginseng expressing rolC


The 2c3 embryogenic culture was obtained as a result of transferring the rolC oncogene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes to the callus cells of Panax ginseng. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are known to play a role in the development of somatic embryos in the 2c3 cell culture. Ten CDPK genes with altered expressions in the 2c3 embryogenic cell culture have previously been described. In this study, the importance of the ginseng CDPK gene for stimulation of somatic embryogenesis was investigated. Frequency analysis of RT-PCR products and real-time PCR were used to analyze CDPK gene expression in the 2c3 callus at different stages of somatic embryo development. Our results suggest that members of the PgCDPK2d subfamily (PgCDPK2d, PgCDPK2ds, and PgCDPK2dL) play a role in the initialization and development of somatic embryos. It was also found that the kinase domain of these genes was subjected to insertion and deletion modifications. The observed transcriptional and post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing, RNA editing or nonsense-mediated mRNA decay) of the PgCDPK2d genes could contribute to the formation of somatic embryos initiated by the rolC oncogene.

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Calcium-dependent protein kinases


Reverse transcription PCR


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This work was supported by grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (06-04-48149-a), the President of Russia (MК-714.2008.4), the Far East Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (06-III-A-06-146), and the Russian Science Support Foundation.

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Correspondence to Konstantin V. Kiselev.

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Kiselev, K.V., Turlenko, A.V. & Zhuravlev, Y.N. CDPK gene expression in somatic embryos of Panax ginseng expressing rolC . Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 99, 141–149 (2009).

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  • Agrobacterium rhizogenes
  • CDPK
  • Genes rol
  • Panax ginseng
  • rolC
  • Somatic embryogenesis