Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp 79–88 | Cite as

Factors influencing somatic embryogenesis induction in Eucalyptus globulus Labill.: basal medium and anti-browning agents

  • Gloria Pinto
  • Sónia Silva
  • Yill-Sung Park
  • Lucinda Neves
  • Clara Araújo
  • Conceição Santos
Original Paper


The low induction rates of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Eucalyptus globulus hamper scaling up the process for commercialization. We analyzed the effectiveness of several media (MS, 1/2MS, B5, WPM, DKW and JADS) during SE induction and expression. MS and B5 were the best media for SE induction and embling regeneration. In general, MS was the best medium for expression, independently of the medium previously used during induction. Several anti-browning compounds (ascorbic acid, charcoal, DTE, DTT, PVP, PVPP and silver nitrate) were added to the expression medium (MS), but all decreased SE potential and only DTE, charcoal and silver nitrate reduced explant browning. When added only during the induction period, anti-browning agents reduced accumulation of phenolics but also severely reduced SE potential. Continuous exposure completely inhibited the SE response. The negative impact of anti-browning agents on SE potential raises a question about the role of production/accumulation of phenolics in the SE process.


Eucalyptus Medium composition Phenolization Primary somatic embryos Woody species 



Gamborg medium


Driver Kuniyuki Walnut medium






Murashige and Skoog medium


Half strength MS medium


α-Naphthalene acetic acid






Woody Plant medium


MS medium without growth regulators



The authors thank Celbi for providing the material used in this study and for supporting part of the project. The Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology FCT/MCT project POCI/AGR/60672/2004 also supported part of the project. Thanks are also due to Armando Costa for technical assistance. The FCT supported Glória Pinto’s (FCT/SFRH/BPD/26434/2006) and Sónia Silva’s (SFRH/BD/32257/2006) fellowships.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gloria Pinto
    • 1
  • Sónia Silva
    • 1
  • Yill-Sung Park
    • 2
  • Lucinda Neves
    • 3
  • Clara Araújo
    • 3
  • Conceição Santos
    • 1
  1. 1.CESAM & Department of Biology, Laboratory of Biotechnology and CytomicsUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Natural Resources CanadaCanadian Forestry Service—Canadian Wood Fibre CentreFrederictonCanada
  3. 3.Silvicaima SA Constância SulConstanciaPortugal

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