Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Endosperm culture: a novel method for triploid plant production

Review

Abstract

Triploid nature of endosperm is the characteristic feature of angiosperms and is formed as a result of triple fusion. Present review discusses the morphogenic response and production of triploid plantlets by endosperm culture. Both mature and immature endosperm used for culture initiation responded differently in cultures. A key factor for the induction of cell divisions in mature endosperm cultures is the initial association of embryo but immature endosperms proliferate independent of embryo. In almost all the parasitic angiosperms, endosperm shows a tendency of direct differentiation of organs without prior callusing, whereas in autotrophic taxa the endosperm usually forms callus tissue followed by differentiation of shoot buds, roots or embryos. The endosperm tissue often shows a high degree of chromosomal variations and polyploidy. Mitotic irregularities, chromosome bridges and laggards are the other important characteristics of endosperm tissues. Triploids are usually seed sterile and is undesirable for plants where seeds are commercially useful. However, in cases where seedlessness is employed to improve the quality of fruits as in banana, apple, citrus, grapes, papaya etc. the induction of triploid plants would be of immense use. Triploid plants have more vigorous vegetative growth than their diploid counterparts. Hence, in plants where the vegetative parts are economically useful, triploids are of good use. This review focuses on the progress achieved so far in endosperm culture to obtain triploid plants.

Keywords

Endosperm culture Triploids Embryos Differentiation Embryogenesis 

Abbreviations

BA

N6-Benzyladenine

CH

Casein hydrolysate

CM

Coconut milk

CE

Corn extract

CWM

Cow’s milk

DAP

Days after pollination

2, 4-D

2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

GA3

Gibberellic acid

GJ

Grape juice

IBA

Indole-3-butyric acid

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

Kn

6-furfurylamino purine (kinetin)

MS

Murashige and Skoog medium

MT

Murashige and Tucker medium

NAA

α-Naphthalene acetic acid

PE

Potato extract

TDZ

Thidiazuron

TJ

Tomato juice

YE

Yeast extract

WM

White’s medium

References

  1. Bajaj YPS, Saini SS, Bidani M (1980) Production of triploid plants from the immature and mature endosperm cultures of rice. Theor Appl Genet 80:785–790Google Scholar
  2. Bapat VA, Narayanaswamy S (1977) Mesocarp and endosperm culture of Achras sapota Linn. in vitro. Indian J Exp Biol 15:294–296Google Scholar
  3. Battaglia E (1963) Apomixis. In: Maheshwari P (ed) Recent advances in the embryology of angiosperms. International Society for Plant Morphologists, University of Delhi, Delhi, pp 221–264Google Scholar
  4. Bhojwani SS (1968) Mophogenetic studies on cultured mature endosperm and embryo of some angiosperms. Ph.D. thesis, University of Delhi, Delhi, 85ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhojwani SS, Johri BM (1970) Cytokinin-induced shoot bud differentiation in mature endosperm of Scurrula pulverulenta. Z Pflanzenphysiol 63:269–275Google Scholar
  6. Bhojwani SS, Johri BM (1971) Morphogenetic studies on cultured mature endosperm of Croton bonplandianum. New Phytol 70:761–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhojwani SS, Razdan MK (1996) Plant tissue culture: theory and practice, a revised edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–766Google Scholar
  8. Bottomley W, Kefford NP, Zwar JA, Goldacre PL (1963) Kinin activity from plant extracts. Aust J Biol Sci 16:395–406Google Scholar
  9. Brown DJ, Canvin DT, Zilkey BF (1970) Growth and metabolism of Ricinus communis endosperm in tissue culture. Can J Bot 48:2323–2331Google Scholar
  10. Ceniza MS, Ueda S, Sugimura Y (1992) In vitro culture of coconut endosperm: callus induction and its fatty acids. Plant Cell Rep 11:546–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chakraborty SP, Vijayan K, Roy BN, Qadri SMH (1998) In vitro induction of tetraploidy in mulberry (Morus alba L.). Plant Cell Rep 17:799–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaturvedi R, Razdan MK, Bhojwani SS (2003) An efficient protocol for the production of triploid plants from endosperm callus of neem, Azadirchta indica A. Juss. J Plant Physiol 160:557–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheema GS, Mehra PN (1982) Morphogenesis in endosperm cultures. In: Fujiwara A (ed) 5th international congress on plant tissue culture, Tokyo. The Japanese Association of Plant Tissue Culture, Tokyo, 230ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Chikkannaiah PS, Gayatri MC (1974) Organogenesis in endosperm tissue cultures of Coedium varigatum Blume. Curr Sci 43:23–24Google Scholar
  15. Dandin SB (1990) Biotechnology and host plant improvement in sericulture. Paper presented at the workshop on ‘Biotechnology in Sericulture’ held at Dept. of Biotechnology, Govt of India, New Delhi, 14ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Das BC, Prasad DN, Sikdar AK (1970) Colchicine induced tetraploids of mulberry. Caryologia 23:283–293Google Scholar
  17. Dwivedi NK, Sikdar AK, Dandin SB, Sastri CR, Jolly MS (1986) Induced tetraploids in mulberry. Morphological anatomical and cytological investigations in cv. RFS 135. Cytologia 51:393–401Google Scholar
  18. Faranda S, Genga A, Viotti A, Manzocchi LA (1994) Stable transformed cell lines from protoplasts of maize endosperm suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 37:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Felker FC, Goodwin JC (1988) Sugar uptake by maize endosperm suspension cultures. Plant Physiol 88:1235–1239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gamborg OL, Mitter RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp Cell Res 50:151–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garg L, Bhandari NN, Rani V, Bhojwani SS (1996) Somatic embryos and regeneration of triploid plants in endosperm cultures of Acacia nilotica. Plant Cell Rep 15:855–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gayatri MC (1978) In vitro studies on Codiaeum variegatum: growth and organogenesis in endosperm tissue. Phytomorphology 28:395–400Google Scholar
  23. Gmitter FG, Ling XB, Deng XX (1990) Induction of triploid plants from endosperm calli in vitro. Theor Appl Genet 80:785–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goralski G, Popielarska M, Slesak H, Siwinska D, Batycka M (2005) Organogenesis in endosperm of Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward cultured in vitro. Acta Biol Crac Ser Bot 47:121–128Google Scholar
  25. Gui YL, Mu SK, Xu TY (1982) Studies on morphological differentiation of endosperm plants of Chinese gooseberry in vitro. Acta Bot Sin 24:216–221Google Scholar
  26. Gu SR, Gui YI, Xu TY (1985) Induction of endosperm plantlets in Lycium. Acta Bot Sin 27:106–109Google Scholar
  27. Hamada S (1963) Polyploid mulberry tree in practice. Indian J Ser 1:3–4Google Scholar
  28. Ingale J, Hageman RH (1965) Metabolic changes associated with the germination of corn III. Effects of gibberellic acid on endosperm metabolism. Plant Physiol 40:672–675Google Scholar
  29. Johnston SA, Den Nijs TPM, Peloquin SJ, Hanneman RE Jr (1980) The significance of genic balance to endosperm development in interspecific crosses. Theor Appl Genet 57:5–9Google Scholar
  30. Johri BM, Bhojwani SS (1965) Growth response of mature endosperm in cultures. Nature 298:1345–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johri BM, Bhojwani SS (1971) In vitro studies on morphogenesis of embryo and endosperm in parasitic angiosperms. J Indian Bot Soc 50:275–285Google Scholar
  32. Johri BM, Nag KK (1970) Endosperm of Taxillus vestitus wall. A system to study the effect of cytokinins in vitro in shoot bud formation. Curr Sci 39:177–179Google Scholar
  33. Johri BM, Nag KK (1974) Cytology and morphogenesis of embryo and endosperm tissues in Dendrophthoe and Taxillus. Cytologia 39:801–813Google Scholar
  34. Johri BM, Srivastava PS (1972) In vitro growth response of mature endosperm of Ricinus communis L. In: Murty YS, Johri BM, Mohan Ram HY, Varghese TM (eds) Advances in plant morphology (Prof. Puri V Comm. Vol.). Sarita Prakashan, Meerut (India), pp 339–358Google Scholar
  35. Johri BM, Srivastava PS (1973) Morphogenesis in endosperm cultures. Z Pflanzenphysiol 70:285–304Google Scholar
  36. Kagan-Zur V, Mills D, Mizrahi Y (1990) Callus formation from tomato endosperm. Acta Hortic 280:139–142Google Scholar
  37. Keller H, Wanner H, Baumann TW (1972) Caffeine synthesis in fruit and tissue cultures of Coffea arabica. Planta 108:339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kin SM, Fraser LG, Harvey CF (1990) Initiation of plantlets from endosperm of Actinidia interspecific hybrids. Sci Hortic 44:107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar PP, Raju CR, Chandra Mohan M, Iyer RD (1985) Induction and maintenance of friable callus from cellular endosperm of Cocos nucifera L. Plant Sci 40:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lakshmi Sita G, Raghva Ram NV, Vaidyanathan CS (1980) Triploid plants from endosperm culture of sandalwood by experimental embryogenesis. Plant Sci Lett 20:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lampe L, Mills CO (1933) Growth and development of isolated endosperm and embryo of maize. Abs Papers Bot Soc, BostonGoogle Scholar
  42. Lampton RK (1952) Developmental and experimental morphology of the ovule and seed of Asimina triloba. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 104ppGoogle Scholar
  43. La Rue CD (1936) The growth of plant embryos in culture. Bull Torrey Bot Club 63:365–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. La Rue CD (1944) Regeneration of endosperm of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Am J Bot 36:798Google Scholar
  45. La Rue CD (1947) Growth and regeneration of the endosperm of maize in culture. Am J Bot 34:585–586Google Scholar
  46. La Rue CD (1949) Culture of the endosperm of maize. Am J Bot 36:798Google Scholar
  47. Liu SQ, Liu JQ (1980) Callus induction and embryoid formation in endosperm culture of Prunus persica. Acta Bot Sin 22:198–199Google Scholar
  48. Liu SQ, Gui YI, Gu SR, Xu TY (1987) Induction of endosperm callus and regeneration of endosperm plantlets of Asparagus officinalis. Acta Bot Sin 29:373–376Google Scholar
  49. Machno D, Przywara L (1997) Endosperm culture of Actinidia spp. Acta Biol Crac Ser Bot 39:55–61Google Scholar
  50. Manzocchi LA (1991) Stable endosperm cell suspension cultures from wild-type and opaque-2 maize. Plant Cell Rep 9:555–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Masuda K, Koda Y, Okazawa Y (1977) Callus formation and embryogenesis of endosperm tissues of parsley seed cultured on hormone free medium. Physiol Plant 41:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mohan Ram HY, Satsangi A (1963) Induction of cell division in the mature endosperm of Ricinus communis during germination. Curr Sci 32:28–30Google Scholar
  53. Monoco LC, Sondahi MR, Car Valho A, Crocomo OJ, Sharp WR (1977) Application of tissue culture in the improvement of coffee. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell tissue and organ culture. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 109–126Google Scholar
  54. Mu SK, Liu SC (1978) Cytological observations on callus derived from apple endosperm cultured in vitro. In: Proceedings of symposium on plant tissue culture. Science Press, Peking, pp 507–510Google Scholar
  55. Mu S, Liu S, Zhou Y, Quan N, Zhang P, Xie H, Zhang F, Yen Z (1977) Induction of callus from apple endosperm and differentiation of the endosperm plantlet. Sci Sin 55:370–376Google Scholar
  56. Muniyamma M (1977) Triploid embryos from endosperm in vivo. Ann Bot 41:1077–1079Google Scholar
  57. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Murashige T, Tucker DPH (1969) Growth factor requirements of citrus tissue. In: Proceedings of the first international citrus symposium, pp 1155–1161Google Scholar
  59. Nag KK, Johri BM (1971) Morphogenic studies on endosperm of some parasitic angiosperm. Phytomorphology 21:202–218Google Scholar
  60. Nair S, Shirgurker MV, Mascarenhas AF (1986) Studies on endosperm culture of Annona squamosa Linn. Plant Cell Rep 5:132–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nakajima K (1962) Induction of useful mutations in mulberry by gamma radiation. JARQ 6:195–198Google Scholar
  62. Nakano H, Tashiro T, Maeda E (1975) Plant differentiation in callus tissue induced from immature endosperm of Oryza sativa L. Z Pflanzenphysiol 76:444–449Google Scholar
  63. Nitsch JP (1969) Experimental androgenesis in Nicotiana. Phytomorphology 19:389–404Google Scholar
  64. Norstog K (1956) Growth of rye grass endosperm in vitro. Bot Gaz 117:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Norstog K, Wall WE, Howland GP (1969) Cytological characteristics of ten-year-old rye grass endosperm tissue cultures. Bot Gaz 130:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ogawa Y (1964) Changes in the amount of gibberellin like substances in the seedling of Pharbitis nil with special reference to expansion of cotyledon. Plant Cell Physiol Tokyo 5:11–20Google Scholar
  67. Raghuramalu Y (1989) Anther and endosperm culture of coffee. J Coffee Res 19:71–81Google Scholar
  68. Rangaswamy NS, Rao PS (1963) Experimental studies on Santalum album L. Establishment of tissue culture of endosperm. Phytomorphology 13:450–454Google Scholar
  69. Sehgal CB (1969) Experimental studies on maize endosperm. Beitr Biol Pflanz 46:233–238Google Scholar
  70. Sehgal CB (1974) Growth of barley and wheat endosperm in cultures. Curr Sci 43:38–40Google Scholar
  71. Sehgal CB, Abbas NS (1996) Induction of triploid plantlets from the endosperm culture of Mallotus philippensis mull. Arg Phytomorphol 46:283–289Google Scholar
  72. Sehgal CB, Khurana S (1985) Morphogenesis and plant regeneration from cultured endosperm of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Plant Cell Rep 4:263–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sehgal CB, Narang KH, Sunila A (1981) Growth responses of mature endosperm of Euphorbia geniculata Orteg. in cultures. Beitr Biol Pflanz 55:385–392Google Scholar
  74. Sethi M, Rangaswami NS (1976) Endosperm embryoids in cultures of Nigella damascena. Curr Sci 45:109–111Google Scholar
  75. Shihkin M, Shuchiung L (1977) Cytological observation on callus derived from apple endosperm cultured in vitro. In: Proceedings of symposium on plant tissue culture, May 25–30, Peking, pp 126–127Google Scholar
  76. Sikdar AK, Jolly MS (1994) Induced polyploid in mulberry (Morus alba L.) I. Induction of tetraploids. Sericologia 34:105–116Google Scholar
  77. Sikdar AK, Jolly MS (1995) Induced polyploid in mulberry (Morus spp.) II. Production of triploids and their yield evaluation. Bull Sericult Res 6:39–46Google Scholar
  78. Smith MM, Stone BA (1973) Studies on Lolium multiflorum endosperm in tissue culture. Aust J Bio Sci 26:123–133Google Scholar
  79. Srivastava PS (1971a). In vitro induction of triploid roots and shoots from mature endosperm of Jatropa panduraefolia. Z Pflanzenphysiol 66:93–96Google Scholar
  80. Srivastava PS (1971b) In vitro growth requirements of mature endosperm of Ricinus communis. Curr Sci 40:337–339Google Scholar
  81. Srivastava PS (1973) Formartion of triploid plantlets in endosperm cultures of Putranjiva roxburghii Z Pflanzenphysiol 69:270–273Google Scholar
  82. Sternheimer EP (1954) Method of culture and growth of maize endosperm in vitro. Bull Torrey Bot Club 81:111–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Straus J (1954) Maize endosperm tissue grown in vitro II. Morphology and cytology. Am J Bot 41:833–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Straus J (1960) Maize endosperm tissue grown in vitro. III. Development of a synthetic medium. Am J Bot 47:641–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Straus J, La Rue CD (1954) Maize endosperm tissue grown in vitro 1. Culture requirements. Am J Bot 41:687–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sun CS, Chu CC (1981) The induction of endosperm plantlets and their ploidy of barley in vitro. Acta Bot Sin 23:265Google Scholar
  87. Syed Abbas N (1993) Studies on somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis in three economic plants, Mallotus philippensis, Aleurites fordii-mature endosperm, Trachyspermum ammi, seedling explants. Thesis submitted to University of Delhi, Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  88. Tamaoki T, Ullstrup JA (1958) Cultivation in vitro of excised endosperm and meristem tissues of corn. Bull Torrey Bot Club 85:260–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thomas TD, Bhatnagar AK, Bhojwani SS (2000) Production of triploid plants of mulberry (Morus alba L.) by endosperm culture. Plant Cell Rep 19:395–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tulecke W, Mc Granaham G, Ahmadi H (1988) Regeneration by somatic embryogenesis of triploid plants from endosperm of walnut, Juglans regia L. Cv. Manregian. Plant Cell Rep 7:301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Verma RC, Sarkar A, Sarkar S (1986) Induced amphidiploids in mulberry. Curr Sci 55:1203–1204Google Scholar
  92. Wang TY, Chang CJ (1978) Triploid citrus plantlet from endosperm culture. Proceedings of symposium on plant tissue culture, pp 463–468Google Scholar
  93. White PR (1963) The cultivation of animal and plant cells, 2nd edn. The Ronald Press, New York, 228ppGoogle Scholar
  94. Williams EG, De Latour G (1980) The use of embryo culture with transplanted nurse endosperm for the production of interspecific hybrids in pasture legumes. Bot Gaz 141:252–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zhao H (1988) Induction of endosperm plantlets of ‘Jinfeng’ pear in vitro and their ploidy. In: Genetic manipulation of crops. Cassell Tycooly (UK), pp 370–371Google Scholar
  96. Zhu Q, Chen X, Li W, Chen Y (1988) In vitro regeneration of plantlets from immature endosperm of maize (Zea mays). In: Genetic manipulation of crops. Cassell Tycooly (UK), pp 370–371Google Scholar
  97. Zur VK, Mills D, Mizrahi Y (1990) Callus formation from tomato endosperm. Acta Hortic 280:139–141Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Post Graduate and Research Department of BotanySt. Thomas CollegePala, KottayamIndia
  2. 2.Biozentrum Klein Flottbek, Entwicklungsbiologie und BiotechnologieUniversität HamburgHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations