TDZ-induced high frequency plant regeneration through multiple shoot formation in witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)
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A very efficient and rapid regeneration system via multiple shoot formation was developed for Cichorium intybus L. when leaf explants excised from sterile seedlings were cultured on medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of various plant growth regulators. In a comparison of leaf lamina and petiole explants, lamina explants produced over three times more shoots than petiole explants, with a mean of 7.5 shoots compared to 2.4. Of the combinations of KIN/IAA, KIN/NAA, BAP/IAA, or BAP/NAA, 0.5 mg l−1 KIN combined with 0.3 mg l−1 IAA was the most effective, producing a mean of 19.7 shoots per lamina explant while the control treatment involving no plant growth regulators produced no shoots at all. When either cytokinin was used alone, BAP was found nearly twice more successful than KIN. However, the most effective treatment of all was the combination of 0.01 mg l−1 TDZ and 1.0 mg l−1 IAA, producing as many as 35.8 shoots per lamina explant. This rate of shoot regeneration is remarkably higher than those previously reported for C. intybus, most likely due to the highly inductive effect of TDZ, which was tested for the first time in this species. Rooting of the shoots was readily achieved on medium containing different concentrations of IAA or IBA. IAA was more effective than IBA and resulted in the highest frequency of shoots that rooted (100%) and mean number of roots per shoot (4.2) when used at 0.5 mg l−1. Hardening off process resulted in a production of more than 80% healthy plantlets.
KeywordsCichorium intybus L. Lamina explants Petiole explants Multiple shoot formation In vitro regeneration TDZ
The authors are grateful to The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for financial support [TBAG-2278(103T024) and TBAG-HD/27(105T040)].
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