Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture

, Volume 83, Issue 2, pp 201–208 | Cite as

Extracellular Matrix Surface Network During Plant Regeneration in Wheat Anther Culture

  • R. Konieczny
  • J. Bohdanowicz
  • A.Z. Czaplicki
  • L. Przywara


Androgenic plant regeneration from wheat anther callus was accompanied by the formation of a conspicuous extracellular matrix surface network (ECMSN) around the induced callus cells and young embryo-like structures. Microscopic observations at the onset of regeneration revealed the presence of two distinct types of cells on the callus surface: large, loosely attached parenchymatous cells and small tightly packed meristematic cells arranged in multicellular clusters. Parenchyma cells of the callus had smooth surface, while on the surface and between the cells of multicellular clusters numerous fine fibrils of ECMSN were observed. The structural arrangement of the ECMSN changed during culture. On the surface of globular embryo-like structures, before protoderm formation, the ECMSN was the most abundant and arranged as a compact layer of secretion with wide strands visible at the cell junctions. Further development of globular embryos was disturbed, giving rise to branched structures outlined by continuous epidermis. The development of such regenerants was accompanied by gradual degradation of the extracellular network and finally its complete disappearance. Digestion with protease did not destroy the network. Treatment of the calluses with chloroform and washing with ether–methanol led to partial destruction of the network, while digestion with pectinase removed the network completely and resulted in the collapse of surface embryo cells.


androgenesis scanning electron microscopy transmission electron microscopy Triticum aestivum 



2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


extracellular matrix


extracellular matrix surface network


α-napthaleneacetic acid


scanning electron microscopy


transmission electron microscopy


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Konieczny
    • 1
  • J. Bohdanowicz
    • 2
  • A.Z. Czaplicki
    • 3
  • L. Przywara
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant Cytology and EmbryologyJagiellonian UniversityKrakówPoland
  2. 2.Department of Genetics and CytologyUniversity of GdańskGdańskPoland
  3. 3.Plant Breeding and Acclimatization InstituteBłoniePoland

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